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Popular Fiction in the Age of Bismarck

E. Marlitt and her Narrative Strategies

Series:

Terry May

E. Marlitt was a bestselling author of the late nineteenth century whose romance novels dominated the German literary market between 1865 and 1888. Her novels appeared in thirty languages, with as many as five different English translations circulating simultaneously in the United States alone. While her name is virtually absent from histories of German literature, recent scholarly studies of individual novels suggest the need to reassess her contributions.
This study is the first in English to examine E. Marlitt’s complete fiction. It situates her prose against the backdrop of women’s discourse and nineteenth-century historical developments in the German Empire. It synthesizes findings of both American and German scholarship to show how her social constructs advanced a liberal political agenda while resisting the conventional view of «natural» gender roles. The book provides a context for recognizing Marlitt’s clever use of the conventionality and acceptability of the romance genre to reposition the image of middle-class women. Her emphasis on personal autonomy, educational opportunities and new fields of professional engagement for women advanced altered images of family, class and national identity. Ultimately, this study of a popular author illuminates domestic, middle-class issues that underwent significant transformations equal to the Empire’s public developments under Bismarck’s politics.
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Index

| 377 →

Index

ADF (Allgemeiner Deutscher Frauenverein) see German Women’s Association

Anawim 37, 109, 244, 299, 330, 362

Anneke, Mathilde 27

Anzengruber, Ludwig 171

Aston, Louise 20, 27, 223, 229, 238

Behrens, Berthe (pseudonym Wilhelmine Heimburg) 359

Bismarck, Otto von 24, 74, 82, 175, 233

Book of Ruth 328–32

“Cinderella motif” 12, 32, 70, 202, 220, 283, 325, 358

civil marriage 169, 178–9, 213 fn. 74

closure, codified or contrived 71, 219–22, 253–71, 284, 345

convents

as disenfranchisement 45, 63, 181, 211–3

as idealization 210

schools 209, 245, 278

Darwinian theory 185

democracy, inalienable rights 18, 25, 26, 51, 58, 121, 294 see equality, universal creation

Deutschkatholiken see German-catholic movement

divorce 86, 162, 163, 169, 185, 188, 195, 208, 211, 212–3, 241, 244, 315

Don Giovanni, or Don Juan 93, 99

education, of young women 97, 116, 117, 134, 140, 262, 278, 278–83, 310

modern 245, 293

opposition to 323

role of women in 125, 227, 245

educational models

Fröbel, Friedrich 125, 131, 278

Hamburger Hochschule für das Weibliche Geschlecht 173, 174, 281

Humboldt, Wilhelm 140, 261–2, 362

Lette Verein, vocational schools 279

Pestalozzi, Johann 18, 124–6, 131

Rudolphi, Caroline 281–2

Schrader-Breymann, Henriette 125, 279

suppression of Catholic model 167, 168, 186, 188, 190–1, 213

Eichendorff, Joseph Freiherr von, Das Marmorbild 93–4

equality, as universal creation 26, 36, 45, 47, 52, 62, 66–7, 69, 87, 88, 92, 112, 131, 223, 259, 361

Erweckte see revivalists

ethnic “otherness” or difference 18, 25, 42, 87, 96, 99, 110–11, 119, 121, 131, 183, 186, 201, 215, 249, 287, 293, 329, 361

family

alternate image 153, 249, 316–8, 332, 336, 344

surrogate parent 117, 119, 123, 125, 131, 151, 158, 285, 305, 311; see also mentors

← 377 | 378 →

Faust legend 93, 99

Fliedner, Fredericke 154 fn.15, 305; see also Kaiserswerth Deaconess Institute

Fontane, Theodor 157, 350

Franco-Prussian War 1870–1 115, 165, 251, 312

French, ethnic image 55, 108, 134, 339, 361

Freytag, Gustav, Soll und Haben 237

Friedrichs, Friedrich (pseudonym Hemann Friedrichs) 273–7, 280, 349

Gartenlaube 3–4, 16, 77, 78, 83, 115, 121, 131, 158, 162, 170, 175, 185, 216, 224, 238

political agenda 298, 332, 354

publisher Ernst Keil 7, 8, 21–2, 25, 32, 37, 48, 67, 86, 111, 157, 204–5, 349

gender constructs

breach of convention 49, 72, 179, 184, 201, 203, 205, 216 fn. 76, 221, 241, 257, 278, 280, 320, 350

female roles 45, 217, 221, 223, 229, 230, 236, 240, 243, 246, 248, 251, 252, 255, 262, 273, 275, 276, 277, 278, 282, 308

autonomy, self-determination 10, 34, 47, 109, 119, 140–1, 204, 220, 226, 227, 231, 261, 263, 294, 317, 321, 337, 343

combatant 90, 178, 247, 303, 314–5

community responsibility 33, 227, 231, 299, 312

domesticity 228, 310, 325, 337

employment 26, 35, 219, 221, 233, 248, 280, 288, 302, 309, 319, 324

leadership 29, 221, 263, 328

legal status 19, 29, 63, 225, 234, 263, 297

maternal role 35, 153, 196, 251, 302, 316

negative images 97, 98, 124, 132–7, 208, 223, 228–9, 232, 242, 246, 263, 266, 317

nurture 60, 147, 231, 248, 256, 303, 310, 320

redefinition 19, 47, 87, 219, 220, 234, 241, 250, 255, 266, 298

vocation 203 fn. 60, 310

male roles 62, 96, 151, 182, 220, 300

as new man 215, 298, 304, 320–30, 356

as spokesperson of political change 298

“natural” gender 30, 54, 61, 173, 201, 213, 255, 279

prescribed roles 47, 62, 172, 173, 183, 207, 219, 229, 247, 262, 267

General German Worker Congress (Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterkongress) 78

German-catholic movement (Deutschkatholiken) 28, 173, 176 fn. 36

German-Danish War of 1864 (Schleswig-Holstein) 96, 98, 165

German Women Teachers and Governesses Association 279

German Women’s Association (ADF or Allgemeiner Deutscher Frauenverein) 28, 29, 63, 176, 221, 229

Hahn-Hahn, Gräfin Ida von, Maria Regina 208–10, 223, 238

Hamburger Hochschule für das Weibliche Geschlecht see education

happy ending 15, 23, 32, 47, 112, 174, 281, 362

← 378 | 379 →

Heyse, Paul 172

humanity 52, 88, 110, 262, 291, 336

Ibsen, Henrik A Doll’s House 343

imagined nation, or national identity construction 32, 38, 42, 48, 52, 59, 73, 84, 111, 131, 156, 165, 201, 210–11, 213, 233–4, 250–1, 262, 272, 347, 360

irony 13, 18, 87, 93, 95, 99, 100, 104, 110, 147, 153, 183, 219–20, 239, 249, 253–4, 261, 271, 318–9

Jesuits

expulsion of 167, 168 fn. 17, 174, 186, 188, 199

image of 171, 172, 174, 180–2, 184, 190, 192, 194, 198–9

Jewish figures 29, 67, 119, 120, 137, 142, 172, 360, 361

John, Alfred 25, 85, 158

Kaiserswerth Deaconess Institute 154, 305; see also Frederike Fliedner

Keil, Ernst see Gartenlaube

Keller, Gottfried 161–2, 349

Kulturkampf 19, 64, 162, 163–217, 311, 357

Lewald, Fanny 27, 29, 38, 145, 223–4, 238

liberal agenda 78, 81, 83, 84, 86, 131, 144, 157, 168, 175, 178, 262, 353, 362

liberal gendered positions 27, 165–72, 173

liberal political parties 74, 77, 79, 165

liberal press 29, 35, 46, 74, 170, 211, 234

liberal Protestantism 57–8, 62, 63, 72, 100, 136, 165, 184, 362

liberal spokespersons 57, 61, 66

liberal versus Catholic practice 154–5, 158, 166, 171, 172, 195, 354

liberalism 15, 19, 22, 23, 24, 32, 37, 39, 51, 52, 75, 76, 82, 110, 121, 143, 166, 176, 208, 213, 332, 363

Luther, Martin 100, 144, 165, 215

Marlitt, Eugenie John

biographical information 3–8, 85–6, 195–7

pseudonym 8, 230

works:

Amtmanns Magd 15, 20, 85, 147, 157, 318–35, 346, 354, 358

Blaubart 15, 18, 86, 93–113, 361

Das Eulenhaus 354, 359–60

Die Frau mit den Karfunkelsteinen 15, 19, 147, 219, 221, 256–71, 335–44, 346–7

Das Geheimnis der alten Mamsell 15, 126, 156, 290–8, 323

Goldelse 7, 18, 25, 32, 34–47, 52, 71, 152, 205, 255, 285, 288–9, 354, 358, 362

Das Heideprinzeßchen 18, 115–59, 219, 261, 304–8, 345, 358

Im Hause des Kommerzienrates 13, 19, 21, 126, 147, 221, 205, 207, 219, 224–40, 308–13, 345

Im Schillingshof 15, 19, 147, 157, 206, 207–17, 219, 221, 240–55, 269, 313–8, 345, 354, 357–8

Reichsgräfin Gisela 15, 18, 22, 24, 25, 47, 84, 138, 147, 157, 206, 299–301, 339, 345, 355–6

Preface 48–52

Schulmeisters Marie 7, 18, 85, 88–93, 112

Die zweite Frau 15, 19, 21, 64, 147, 153, 157, 162–3, 174–5, 178–207, 211, 215, 238, 244, 266, 301–4, 333, 345, 354, 356–7

← 379 | 380 →

Die zwölf Apostel 7, 18, 21, 25–33, 47, 52, 63, 85, 88, 286–8

marriage

image of 14, 83, 208, 211, 237, 239, 252, 268, 280, 290

as financial arrangement 157, 183, 243–4, 336, 357

modern or companionate 296, 309, 331, 333, 339–40

as religious conversion 330

as secondary 348

May, Karl 215, 222

mentors

female 122, 135, 236, 262, 286–7, 304–8, 310–1, 322

male 69, 126, 135, 288–9, 345

shifting image 286, 345

as surrogate family 86, 106, 117, 127, 131, 151, 158, 282, 311

Meysenbug, Malwida von 27–8, 282–3

middle-class values 34, 35, 45, 71, 84, 144, 174, 186 fn. 45, 202–3, 260, 288, 358

orphans 15, 25, 31, 32, 41, 53, 61, 62, 67, 89, 124, 127, 131, 140, 141, 152, 215, 225, 244, 283, 287, 289, 291, 318, 319

orthopraxis, theological right practice 67, 73, 138, 149, 299, 301, 356

Otto(-Peters), Louise 27, 29–30, 176–7, 281

and Auguste Schmidt 29, 176, 279

parody 19, 236–8, 240, 241, 255, 270, 333–5

see closure

patriarchy, replaced 149, 153, 155, 221, 267, 289, 329, 343

Pietism 36, 38, 58, 130, 148, 149 fn. 13, 290, 301

Pius IX, Pope 166, 211

Quanta Cura 58, 166

Syllabus Errorum 166, 167

Prussian Civil Code 64, 192

Prussian Convent Law 1875 213

Pückler-Muskau, Fürst Hermann von 131, 312, 349

rationalism 36, 57–8, 121, 163, 166, 184, 185–6, 190, 271

religious intolerance or prejudice 38, 39, 41, 42, 67, 75, 120, 128, 130, 145, 200, 300–1

revivalists (Erweckte) 36, 65

Riehl, Wilhelm Heinrich 17, 152, 207, 267–8, 323, 347, 353, 355

romance

conventions 10–11, 12, 21, 31–3, 43, 49, 194, 221, 283

as political image 14–5, 42, 161, 193

theory of 14–5, 222

St. Bartholomew Massacre of 1572 212, 247

Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Princess Mathilde von 4, 7, 73, 85, 146, 158, 196–7, 285, 307, 311

Shakespeare, William

Comedy of Errors 327

Othello 99

Romeo and Juliet 101, 107, 108, 111

Sommer, Doris, Foundational Fictions 14–5, 222

Stowe, Harriet Beecher, Uncle Tom’s Cabin 243 fn. 20, 353

subversive writing 4, 11, 30, 49, 191, 219, 221, 222, 224, 236, 240, 269, 283; see also closure

suicide 7, 70, 132, 138, 143, 162, 171, 214, 306, 318

← 380 | 381 →

Trivialliteratur 1, 3, 9, 11, 13, 24, 75, 113, 168, 217, 224, 239

universal creation see equality

utopian social practices

Ernst Abbé “Jena Model” 82

Borchert, Wilhelm 76

free libraries 79–81

medical insurance 81–82

profit sharing 76

Schulze-Deliztsch co-operatives 76–7, 78, 172

workers’ housing 76, 227

Weber, Pastor O. 37, 51, 72

working-class issues 269