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The Governance of Educational Welfare Markets

A Comparative Analysis of the European Social Fund in Five Countries

Edited By Daniel Pop and Cristina Stanus

This book is a first exploratory inquiry into possible educational selectivity effects of the European Social Fund (ESF). It assesses the extent of the gap between the social policy objectives set through regulatory competences in multi-level governance and the structure of incentives it breeds in practice, with a broad range of implications for the capacity of the government to control for an equitable distribution of services at the community level. The chapters emphasize the educational selectivity involved in national policy decisions concerning ESF implementation in the five countries, the role of informal mechanisms in fine-tuning implementation, the negative effects of formalization and failures in accommodating the complexity of goals which characterizes the ESF, as well as the overall fairness of ESF implementation towards the most disadvantaged groups in society. The empirical analysis suggests that social-service delivery contracting as an instrument of governance is no longer regulating against risks for beneficiaries, but fuels increased social division in access to public services.
The book is the result of the Educational selectivity effects of the European Social Fund project (July 2012 and December 2013), developed with the support of the Education Support Program of the Open Society Foundations.
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← 230 | 231 → Index

absorbtion of EU structural funds 23, 57, 77, 136

access to education 1, 3–4, 13, 16, 23, 31–2, 65, 86, 104, 139, 180–2, 202, 204

allocation of ESF resources 32, 57, 77, 90, 95, 108, 118, 132–6, 177, 179, 180

BG-OPHRD 14, 21–6, 28–31, 34, 36, 40–7, 172, 187, 204

commissioning 2, 9, 10, 13

social and economic consequences of commissioning 84, 106, 115, 151, 174

CZ-ECOP 14, 52–60, 62, 64–6, 68, 175, 178–9, 201

desegregation of schools 33, 40, 86, 93, 98–9, 158

Directorate-General Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion, European Commission 114, 117, 174

early school leaving 41, 108, 118, 176, 182

education of disadvantaged groups 5, 39, 50, 59, 65, 124, 139, 140–1, 194

access to education see access to education

multiply disadvantaged children 73, 182–3, 190, 192

education of migrants 182–3, 201

education of Roma children 5, 16, 17, 34, 37, 39, 40–1, 43, 50–2, 54, 64–5, 68, 86, 89–95, 98, 109, 121–4, 132–4, 139–41, 148, 152, 155, 157–8, 171, 175, 179–83, 187, 189, 190, 192–4, 196, 199, 204, 206

educational integration 25, 39–40, 77, 86, 87, 91, 98–9, 188

educational selectivity 39, 65, 98–9, 105, 116, 122, 126, 147, 194

educational services

core services 184–5, 188, 204

support services 184–5, 186

ESF implementation

assessment of applications 56, 67, 82–3, 86, 116, 159–160

Bulgaria 4, 15, 23, 27, 43

commissioning 10, 12, 16, 22, 25–6, 32, 34, 43, 45, 67, 73–4, 76, 79, 84, 95–6, 98–9, 114, 117–8, 127, 133, 144, 148, 157–8, 166, 174, 198, 202–3, 206–7

Czech Republic 4, 15, 52–7, 60, 66

democratic character of ­implementation 80, 105, 133, 168

difficulties of implementation in CEE countries 3–4, 21, 46, 55, 60, 67, 75, 84–5, 99, 105–7, 111, 128, 175

horizontal priorities 23, 124–6, 133

Hungary 4, 16, 74–6

innovation 7, 9, 23, 40, 75, 84, 95–6, 98, 157, 188

and national education reforms 4, 58–9, 99, 134, 137–9, 175–6, 203

← 231 | 232 → Romania 4, 16, 104–5, 107

Slovakia 4, 132–5, 139

European Court of Human Rights 51, 181

governance of educational welfare markets 13

competition and empowerment of actors 34, 55, 63–4, 87–90, 115, 119–20, 147–9, 151–2, 194–8

defining educational services 41–2, 65, 67, 93–4, 123–4, 151, 153, 156–8, 184, 186–9

defining users/beneficiaries of ­services 39, 64–5, 91–3, 121–2, 154–6, 189–94

types of projects 45, 61–3, 81, 115, 118, 148, 152, 179–80

governance of EU structural funds 6, 12, 104

dimensions 10

informality 8, 11, 85, 104

HU-SROP 14, 16, 73–4, 76, 77, 79, 81, 86, 90, 92, 94, 98–9, 179, 188, 203, 205

impact of EU structural funds 7

integrated approaches to educational inclusion 68, 93, 96, 160, 183–4

intermediate bodies 11, 22, 26–7, 36, 55, 60, 67, 75, 83–4, 107, 110, 117, 140, 142–5, 147, 149, 158, 170, 203

ISCED 0–3 education 15, 38, 54, 58, 64, 104, 117, 119, 122, 139, 176–7, 180, 190, 192

lifelong learning 23, 53, 86, 117, 139, 142

managing authorities 10–2, 22, 26, 53, 59–60, 78–9, 108–11, 127, 138, 142–4, 169, 170, 203

administrative capacity 6, 10, 22, 45, 56, 67, 111, 168

decentralization 25, 176

and informality 11

institutional transparency 30, 82, 97, 114, 146

relationships with contractors 44, 107, 116, 145, 174, 194

monitoring committees 8, 25, 28–30, 35, 55, 60, 62, 81, 111–2, 126, 143, 146, 159–60, 168, 171, 203

NGOs 25, 28, 34–5, 37–8, 40, 44, 61, 63–6, 80–2, 87, 90, 112, 114, 119, 133, 145, 148, 150, 152, 155, 171–2, 190, 196, 199, 205

non-formal education 63–4, 66–7

non-state provision of public services 1, 8–9, 87

Operational Programme Education, ­Slovakia see SK-OPE

Operational Programme Education for Competitiveness, Czech ­Republic see CZ-ECOP

Operational Programme Human Resource Development in ­Bulgaria see BG-OPHRD

over-formalization of ESF ­implementation 109, 140, 147, 169–70, 203

partnership

as governance mechanism 11, 26, 28, 60, 79–81, 111–4, 144, 171–3

as project methodology 36–8, 61, 64, 90–1, 113, 120–1, 152–4, 198–201

← 232 | 233 → public sector goals

accommodation of complex goals 11, 167–9, 174

and EU structural funds 6

goals of ESF 2, 9, 181

quality of education 3, 23, 32, 62, 86, 98, 139, 180–1, 187, 202, 204

RO-SOPHRD 14, 104–17, 120, 122–3, 125–8, 168–9, 171–6, 182, 188, 192–3, 198, 201, 205

school drop-out 32, 39, 41, 182

second chance education 86, 99, 108, 120, 184, 186

Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development, ­Romania see RO-SOPHRD

SK-OPE 14, 131–9, 141–7, 149–59, 168, 180, 188, 200

social inclusion 2–4, 14, 23, 27, 113, 123, 132, 140, 148, 167–8, 173, 180, 182, 187, 190, 200, 205, 220, 222, 224

Social Renewal Operational Programme, Hungary see HU-SROP

special educational needs 5, 15, 32, 39–41, 49–52, 54, 58–9, 62, 64–7, 87, 139–40, 149, 153–4, 180–4, 187, 190, 192–3, 201, 204

and discrimination 51, 52

teacher training 66, 87, 93–4, 111, 117, 137, 149, 156, 185, 191

vocational education 105, 137, 153, 185

vocational training 25, 105, 111

welfare markets

characteristics 8

in education 9, 61, 176

ESF and welfare markets 2, 9

quasi-markets 1–2, 14, 16, 103–4, 118, 166, 202