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The Spanish of the Northern Peruvian Andes

A Sociohistorical and Dialectological Account


Luis Andrade Ciudad

This book analyses a set of rarely described regional Spanish varieties spoken throughout much of the northern Peruvian Andes (Cajamarca, La Libertad and Ancash) from a sociohistorical and dialectological perspective. What are the main dialectological features of these varieties? Are these features the same ones that shape southern Andean Spanish, a variety formed mainly through contact with Quechua and Aymara? Which of these features are distinctly outcomes of contact with Culle, the main substrate language of the region, which was mentioned in colonial and postcolonial documents but is now extinct? How are these features linked to the postcolonial history of the region, marked by the Catholic evangelization enterprise and an «economy of plundering» based on agriculture, weaving and mining? Thorough consideration of these matters allows the author to critically assess the standard notion in Hispanic linguistics that considers Andean Spanish as a single, homogeneous code. The study sheds new light on how the regional varieties of Spanish in America were shaped over time and proposes ways of delving into language history in postcolonial contexts, where a written European language has been superimposed on a set of native codes previously lacking written traditions.
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Appendix 1. Examined historic archives

In addition to available documents about the region, the study summarized in Chapter 3 demanded work in basically three church archives and two regional ones: the Archbishop’s Archives of Lima (AAL), the Archbishop’s Archives of Trujillo (AAT), and the Historical Diocesan Archives of Cajamarca (AHDC), among the first group, and the La Libertad Regional Archives (ARLL) and the Cajamarca Regional Archives (ARC), among the second group. The document search had three objectives: first, identify early documents in which the intervention of interpreters in indigenous languages was mentioned; second, select documents that contained data about the geographical circuits relevant to intra- and interregional communication, and third, locate documents that allowed for exploration of linguistic aspects in spaces of production important to regional history, such as textile plants and mining sites. With these objectives in mind, in the AAL I reviewed the series of Witchcraft and Idolatries, Visits, Capítulos, and Statistics. In all of these collections I separated the documents relevant to my area – in other words, those corresponding to the present-day territory of the province of Pallasca, which was part of the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Lima until the bishopric of Huaraz was created in 1899.1 During the two limited but valuable afternoons of surveying that were offered to me in the AAT, I dedicated myself to completing the ← 343 | 344 → transcription of the idolatries documents since Larco’s publication (2005) does not contain all of them, though it does select...

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