Territorialization, National Identity and «Imagined Geographies» in Albania
On the basis of this case study, the author constructs a theoretical model that captures the dynamic of domestic versus international constraints on elite choices and analyses how this leads to the (re)construction of borders. The book explores the way in which competing elites manipulate national symbols to create the necessary environment for personal political gain, using both expansionist and contractionist versions of «virtual» borders that may or may not be congruent with internationally recognized borders.
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- Oxford, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Wien, 2014. XVIII, 267 pp., 9 tables, 11 maps
- About the author(s)/editor(s)
- About the book
- This eBook can be cited
- List of Tables
- List of Maps
- Chapter 1: Delineating the Playing Field: Virtual Borders and Imagined Geographies
- 1.1 Focus of the Study
- 1.2 The Puzzle of Shifting Borders in the National Imagination
- 1.3 Elite Clashes and International Constraints in Determining Border Shifts
- 1.4 Importance of the Study
- 1.5 Tracking Causes and Variables
- 1.6 Plan of the Book
- Chapter 2: Boundary Mapping and Territorialization of Identity
- 2.1 Existing Theories of Nationalism and How They Explain Borders
- 2.2 A Theoretical Framework of Virtual Border Shifts
- 2.3 Delineating Borders in Nationalist Discourse and a Nation’s Mental Mapping
- 2.4 The Two Overlapping Maps of the Albanian Nation
- 2.4.1 External Constraints During the Mapping of Virtual Borders
- 2.4.2 Domestic Political Competition and (Re)drawing of the National Map
- Chapter 3: From Nation-Building to State Formation: How Virtual Mapping Intersected with Recognized Borders in the Albanian Imagination
- 3.1 Albanian Identity Construction and How It Mapped onto Territory Pre-1880
- 3.2 The Map Resulting from Albanian Elite Struggles During the Years 1878–1899 and 1911–1912: Hypotheses and Predictions
- 3.3 The Mapping of Albanian Boundaries from the League of Prizren to Independence
- 3.4 Great Power Geopolitics and Its Effect on Shaping the Newly Created Albania’s Borders: Shifts from 1912 to 1917
- 3.5 Elite Struggles, Ethnic Underbidding and Map Contraction from 1912 to 1917
- 3.6 National Borders as Perceived by the Masses on Both Sides of the Border from 1878 to the First World War
- 3.7 Elite Struggles, Ethnic Underbidding and Map Contraction from 1912 to the First World War Among the Albanian Elite
- Chapter 4: The Interwar Period and the Shifting of Virtual Borders at Elite and Mass Level in Albania and Abroad: From Contractionary to Expansionary and Vice-Versa
- 4.1 External Constraints on the Albanians in the Interwar Years and the Effects on Map Weaving
- 4.2 Elite Struggles and the Outcome for the Albanian Map in the Interwar Period
- 4.3 Imagined National Borders: “Bottom-Up” Changes in Map Perception in the Interwar Period
- 4.4 The Imagined Nation Among the Ethnic Kin: The Expansionary Map in Kosovo in the Interwar Period
- 4.5 Conclusion
- Chapter 5: From “Greater Albania” During the Second World War to Contractionary Borders in the Communist Era
- 5.1 Direct International Intervention During the Second World War and the Redrawing of the Map to Create “Greater Albania”
- 5.2 Elite Struggles and the Irredentist Outcome
- 5.3 Principal Map Shifts During the Early Communist Period in Albania and Their Impact on Visualizing the Nation’s Borders
- 5.4 Consolidation of National Communism in Albania and Its Effects on the Imagined Map and the Visualization of Borders
- 5.5 Perception of Borders Among Ethnic Albanians in Yugoslavia During the Communist Era
- 5.5.1 Vernacular Education and Nationalizing Textbooks Causing Shifts in Perception of Virtual Borders Among Ethnic Albanians in Yugoslavia
- 5.6 Mass Media in Albania and Its Role in (Re)shaping Mental Boundaries on Both Sides of the State Border During the Communist Era
- 5.7 Ideologizing History to Create a Perennial Map: Instrumental Use of a National Hero in Textbooks and How It Has Impacted Virtual Border Shifts
- Chapter 6: Reimagining Territorial Landscape and Mental Borders in the Post-Communist and Democratic Transition Era
- 6.1 Competing Elite Projects on National Boundaries in Albania During Democratic Transition
- 6.2 External Constraints on Albanian Transition and the Resulting National Map
- 6.3 Map-Shaping Political Projects Among the Albanians of Kosovo and Macedonia
- 6.3.1 The Albanians of Kosovo and Their Shifting Stance Toward Albania in 1990s: A View From Below
- 6.4 Alternative Map Configuration and Virtual Borders Seen From Below: Kosovo and Other Albanian-Speaking Regions in Albania’s Textbooks During the 1990s
- 6.5 Mass Media and Its Role in (Re)shaping Mental Boundaries on Both Sides of the State Border in the Post-Communist Period
- 6.5.1 Recent Debate on the Shaping of Territorial Identity in Albania, Kosovo and Amongst the Albanian Community in Macedonia
- 6.6 Virtual Borders as Imagined by the Masses on Both Sides of the State Border in the Post-Communist Period
- Journal Articles
- Newspapers/Media Sources
- Public Lectures
- Series Index
List of Maps
1. Map of Albania and its borders as officially recognized in 1913.
2. Map showing the maximum extent of Albanian territorial ambitions – “Greater Albania”.
3. 1891 map of Albanian-dominated vilayets
4. 1842 map by Count Fedor Karaczay, a colonel in the Austrian Service.
5. Map of 1878 showing Eastern Europe as divided by the Treaty of Berlin.
6. Map of 1882. The map is in English but many of the place names are in Albanian, Greek and Slav, thus indicating the demarcation of the territory.
7. The Albanian vilayets.
8. Map of the proposed Albanian state by the provisional government of Albania, 1912–1914.
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