The papers collected in this volume examine selected aspects of the interaction of phonology with phonetics, morphosyntax and the lexicon in a variety of languages including Korean, Spanish, Brazilian Portuguese, British English, Polish, Russian, Ukrainian, Dutch and Hawaiian. In order to approach the role and ways of expressing extraphonological information in phonology, the international contributors adopt different methods of analysis (data gathering, experiments, theoretical discussions), couched in various theoretical frameworks (such as Optimality Theory and Government Phonology), which reveal both the multifarious faces and interfaces of modern phonological research.
English ash in loanwords into Polish. Factors behind two patterns of adaptation (Jolanta Szpyra-Kozłowska and Marek Radomski)
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Jolanta Szpyra-Kozłowska and Marek Radomski
English ash in loanwords into Polish. Factors behind two patterns of adaptation
In this paper we approach an interesting and complex issue of the phonological adaptation of the front mid-low English vowel /æ/ (ash), as in cat, in Polish anglicisms. Ash, having no equivalent in Polish, is realized in loanwords in two ways: as the front half-open [ɛ] (e.g. E jazz > P [ʤɛs]) and, more frequently, as the front retracted fully open [a] (e.g. E rap > P [rap]), the usual assumption being that such substitutions are completely random. We challenge this claim and demonstrate that the adaptation of ash, while not fully regular, does show some degree of predictability.
The paper attempts to identify the major factors responsible for the two realizations of /æ/ in loanwords into Polish. They involve a variety of contextual, lexical and temporal conditions on the occurrence of P/a/ and P/ɛ/ in anglicisms. We also examine the impact of spelling and the role of dialectal input in this process as well as the perception of E/æ/ by Poles. A perceptual experiment is presented in which 40 Poles listened to a list of words containing various English vowels including ash and indicated Polish vowels they resembled most. Finally, we analyse the collected data within two major theoretical models of loanword adaptation, known as nativization-through-perception and nativization-through-production approaches.
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