Meaning and Translation
Almost everything that one claims about meaning is likely to be questioned or disputed. Translation studies also abound in numerous controversies. However, there is no doubt that translations entail a transfer of meaning, even if the exact sense of the word "meaning" remains vague. The same applies to the term "translation equivalence". This book is an attempt to cope with conceptual, terminological, theoretical, and practical difficulties resulting from this nebula of issues. Numerous examples of translated legal, religious and artistic texts are provided to substantiate the claim that translation equivalence, except in the most trivial sense of the term, is indeed a delusion. The book is addressed to all those persons who are interested in mutual relations between semantics and translation studies.
Musical Instruments in the Old Testament (based on Dennis Hinks@1976 www.journal33.org)
Kinnōr–LYRE (CITHARA) (KJV-”harp”) and Nebel--HARP (KJV-- “psaltery”; “viol”)
A lyre has a body with two arms, which are joined by a crossbar. The strings stretch from the body to the crossbar. Harps have a neck at an angle to the body, either arched (of the same piece as the body) or angular (the neck fastened to the body at a near right angle). There is some overlap between these two instruments.
Kinnōr comes from the root “to twang.” Nebel means “a skin bottle,” perhaps referring to the shape of the sound box. Most authorities say kinnōr is a lyre and nebel is a harp. However, there is some confusion between these terms. Some feel that the main difference between them might be that of size and number of strings.
The joyful music of the kinnōr was heard in the temple (1 Chronicles 15:16; 2 Chronicles 5:12), as well as during festivities and banquets (Isaiah 5:12). David used this instrument to calm Saul’s spirit (1 Samuel 16:23). It was played by itself (1 Samuel 16:16) or with other musical instruments (1 Samuel 10:5).
The nebel was often played with the kinnōr (1 Kings 10:12) or with other instruments (Isaiah 5:12). It was used in...
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