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Research on Social Studies

Mehmet Ali İçbay, Hasan Arslan and Frederic Jacobs

This book is a collection of papers written by researchers, teachers, administrators, analysts and graduate students working and doing research in the field of social sciences. The topics in the book include a wide range of studies from the analysis of social science textbooks to the teachers’ image on newspapers, from the relationship between self-efficacy and cognitive level to the role of organizational silence on the academicians’ loneliness in the working life.

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Turkish Adaptation of The Prenatal Maternal Expectations Scale (PMES)


1. Introduction

During the pregnancy period a new and inexperienced life begins and during this period, expectations, hopes, dreams, and wishes come to the surface concerned about the role of motherhood (Özkan, 1993). For this reason, the capacity to comprehend herself as a mother is so important for a woman, not only for preparing herself for motherhood but also to meet the needs of newborn baby (Barnard & Martell, 1995). During the pregnancy period, a woman starts to create models about the kind of a mother she will be (Bruschweiler Stern, 1998). She observes the behaviours of others, holds the appropriate ones and rejects the ones that she thinks do not fit with her. It is revealed that, the women who are able to dream of herself as a mother during pregnancy, adjust to the process after maternity better and report having more satisfaction (Lederman & Weis, 2009). Rubin (1984) states that expectations of women before maternity helps them to adjust easily to the maternity process and be successful in the role of motherhood (as cited in Gress-Smith et al., 2013, p. 304). Staneva and Wittkowski (2013) also investigated the beliefs and expectations of women about motherhood, and expressed that unrealistic expectations of pregnant women are related with difficulties in the adjustment after maternity, low self esteem, and insufficiency feeling. Crockenberg and Smith (1982) determined a significant consistency between the sensitivity of mothers before maternity and the relation of the mother–baby after birth. Sokolowski, Hans,...

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