Even though comprehensive studies on political systems in the third wave of democratization have been made in the field of transformation, the situation in the Western Balkans remained underexposed. The reason for this might be that the fall of Yugoslavia and the emergence of new states are events that are to be attributed to the third wave of democratization. As Croatia has chosen the path of democracy, others still have problems with the rule of law. This book draws the political culture approach as a focal point providing a comprehensive understanding of transformations. The aim of this volume is to conceptualize the approach of embedded transformation.
Modernization Approach and the Failed Transition in the Western Balkans (Mustafa Türkeş / Tolgahan Akdan)
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Mustafa Türkeş1 & Tolgahan Akdan2
Modernization Approach and the Failed Transition in the Western Balkans
The disintegration of the Eastern Bloc was accompanied by the resurgence of liberalism and triggered a debate on democratization and economic liberalisation in the Balkans. This debate is not only an academic endeavour but it in a way reflects the prospective view of the United states of America (US), including European powers in the sense that it implies how they conceive of the evolution of world affairs and the direction they desire and the means they want to use to steer the transition in the Western Balkans. This could be considered as the manifestation of the belief that there is no viable alternative to liberal democratic capitalism in the post-Cold War period. This juxtaposition of liberal democracy and capitalism was declared as the end of history in the gifted hands of Francis Fukuyama (Fukuyama, 1989). In his famous article, Fukuyama argues that the history was at the end, the end of struggle over how to organize society. “All that remain,” as William Brown argues, “was to enlarge the circle of market-based democracies” (Brown, 2004: 108). This latter objective had then yet to be achieved. Indeed, the objective is to complete the unfinished business of the post-1945 period of extending liberal democracy and capitalism over the entire planet. The debates on democratization revitalize the old arguments of the Modernisation Approach within a new historical context in which...
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