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In the Beginning was the Image: The Omnipresence of Pictures

Time, Truth, Tradition

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Edited By András Benedek and Ágnes Veszelszki

The authors outline the topic of visuality in the 21st century in a trans- and interdisciplinary theoretical frame from philosophy through communication theory, rhetoric and linguistics to pedagogy. As some scholars of visual communication state, there is a significant link between the downgrading of visual sense making and a dominantly linguistic view of cognition. According to the concept of linguistic turn, everything has its meaning because we attribute meaning to it through language. Our entire world is set in language, and language is the model of human activities. This volume questions the approach in the imagery debate.

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Notes on Contributors

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Notes on Contributors

ACZÉL, PETRA, is a Professor at Corvinus University of Budapest and head of the Institute of Behavioural Science and Communication Theory, as well as member of the Social Communication Doctoral School. She studied at Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, earned her PhD degree in Linguistics with a thesis titled Winning with Word: Classical and Modern Argumentation Theory in 2003, and gave her habilitation lecture in 2011. Her research interests are focused on the theory and practice of rhetoric. She is author and co-author of four books and numerous essays on verbal and visual argumentation, persuasive communication and (new) media communication. Her recent publications include contributions to the debate on “new rhetoric” and new media rhetoric, among them her paper “Enchanting Bewilderment: Concerns for Visual Rhetoric” (in András Benedek and Kristóf Nyíri eds. 2011: Images in Language: Metaphors and Metamorphoses. Series VISUAL LEARNING, vol. 1, Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang), “Mediarhetoric: Complex Visual Literacy” (in András Benedek and Kristóf Nyíri eds. 2012: The Iconic Turn in Education. Series VISUAL LEARNING, vol. 2, Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang); “Visionary Rhetoric: Teaching Imagistic Communication” (in András Benedek and Kristóf Nyíri eds. 2013: How to Do Things with Pictures: Skill, Practice, Performance. Series VISUAL LEARNING, vol. 3, Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang); “Expressivity and Emotion in Visionary Rhetoric” (in András Benedek and Kristóf Nyíri eds. 2014: The Power of the Image: Emotion, Expression, Explanation. Series VISUAL LEARNING, vol. 4, Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang), and “Ingenious Rhetoric: The Visual Secret of Rhetoricality” (in András Benedek and Kristóf Nyíri eds. 2015: Beyond Words: Pictures, Parable, Paradoxes. Series VISUAL LEARNING, vol. 5, Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang). She is chairing and holding memberships in Hungarian and international communication associations and boards. E-mail: petra.aczel@uni-corvinus.hu.

BARNEY, TIMOTHY, born 1980, is Assistant Professor of Rhetoric & Communication Studies at the University of Richmond. He is a specialist in visual rhetoric and has written criticism about political cartography, the Cold War, and post-communist Europe for journals such as Rhetoric & Public Affairs, Quarterly Journal of Speech, Popular Communication, Communication & Critical/Cultural Studies, and The Journal of International & Intercultural Communication. His book Mapping the Cold War: Cartography and the Framing of America’s International Power was published by the University of North Carolina Press in 2015. E-mail: tbarney@richmond.edu. ← 181 | 182 →

BENEDEK, ANDRáS, Professor, Department of Technical Education, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, has published some 150 papers to date in connection with human resource development issues, among them the essays “New Vistas of Learning in the Mobile Age” (in Kristóf Nyíri ed. 2006: Mobile Understanding: The Epistemology of Ubiquitous Communication. Vienna: Passagen Verlag), “Mobile Learning: New Horizons and Unstable Summits” (in Kristóf Nyíri ed. 2009: Engagement and Exposure: Mobile Communication and the Ethics of Social Networking. Vienna: Passagen Verlag), and “Visual Education: Old and New Dilemmas” (in András Benedek and Kristóf Nyíri eds. 2014: The Power of the Image: Emotion, Expression, Explanation. Series VISUAL LEARNING, vol. 4, Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang). From 1976 to 1979 he studied systems analysis on a scholarship and acquired a Ph.D. at the Academy of Sciences in Moscow. During the 1980s, he was a scientific advisor to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He was the Director of Vocational Training (from 1984 to 1989), then Director General (from 1989 to 1990) at the National Pedagogical Institute. As its first Director General in 1990, he established the National Institute for Vocational Education. He was involved in numerous UNESCO and ILO projects and continues to participate in the preparation of various World Bank and Phare projects in the area of human resource development. Further information: www.benedekandras.hu.

CARREÑO, JAVIER, born 1979 (Colombia), is an assistant professor of philosophy at Franciscan University of Steubenville in Gaming, Austria, where he teaches courses in the history of philosophy, aesthetics, and the philosophy of literature. He received his undergraduate degree in philosophy and literature from the University of Dallas, and his M.A. and Ph.D. in philosophy from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. His area of research is 19th and 20th Century Continental Philosophy, in particular the thought of Edmund Husserl. He has published articles at the crossroads of Husserlian phenomenology and aesthetics in Husserl Studies, The New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy, The Yearbook on the History and Interpretation of Phenomenology, Acta Latinoamericana de Fenomenología, and Humanities Across The Borders: More Interdisciplinary Issues. E-mail: jcarreno@franciscan.edu.

CRIPPEN, MATTHEW primarily researches intersections between American philosophy, phenomenology and art, with an eye to contributing to cognitive science. His publications discuss aesthetics andmind, and also media, politics, Wittgenstein, Frankfurt School, Dewey, James, Thoreau, Nietzsche, history of science, religious faith, freewill, Greek philosophy and more. While diverse, his ← 182 | 183 → work unites around “ecological” approaches that place objects of investigation in world-contexts. Matthew has been pleased to teach an international population of students first at York University in Toronto, and now at the American University in Cairo, where he is an assistant professor. Outside of the academy, he has worked as a musician, mandolin and guitar teacher and gymnastics coach.

ENDRŐDY-NAGY, ORSOLYA, born 1977, is an Associate Professor of Education at the Department of Psychology and Pedagogy, Eötvös Loránd University of Budapest, Faculty of Primary and Preschool Education. 2005–2008 she was editor-in chief of pedagogic periodicals. She has just obtained her PhD in 2015 in the field of education. During her studies, she won the Hungarian State Scholarship, Hungarian Initiatives Fund, Washington DC and Doctoral Scholarships of ELTE, her research was made at Lyon, INRP and Bologna, Archiginnasio. Her main research fields are history of childhood, iconography and multiculturalism. Some main publications: Children in Europe 1455–1517 (Education, Psychology & Humanities International Conference, Silver Spring, Washington DC, 2014); “Media in the Middle Ages and sources of the History of Childhood” (in Andrea Kárpáti and Emil Gaul eds. 2011: Art – Space – Education. Proceedings of the 33. INSEA World Congress, Budapest: HATA). E-mail: endrodyorsolya@gmail.com.

GIARDINO, VALERIA is researcher at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), affiliated to the Laboratoire d’Histoire des Sciences et de Philosophie – Archives Henri-Poincaré in Nancy (France). Her research interests concern the role of diagrams and images in our system of knowledge, in particular the use of diagrams and figures in the practice of mathematics and the sciences; the cognitive basis of mathematical knowledge, in relation to the studies in cognitive science; more in general, the connection between the representation of information and problem solving. Recently, she has been working also on the role of gestures in problem solving. Some main publications: “An Inquiry into the Practice of Proving in Low-Dimensional Topology”. Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science 308: 315–336, 2015 (with Silvia De Toffoli); “Forms and Roles of Diagrams in Knot Theory”. Erkenntnis 79/4: 829–842, 2014 (with Silvia De Toffoli); “Diagramming: Connecting Cognitive Systems to Improve Reasoning” (in András Benedek and Kristóf Nyíri eds. 2014: The Power of the Image: Emotion, Expression, Explanation. Series VISUAL LEARNING, vol. 4, Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang). Further information: http://poincare.univ-lorraine.fr/fr/membre-titulaire/valeria-giardino. E-mail: valeria.giardino@univ-lorraine.fr. ← 183 | 184 →

GOLDEN, DANIEL L. (1974) is a research fellow in the Institute of Philosophy at the Research Centre for the Humanities of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. His main fields of interest are media philosophy, pragmatism and the philosophy of science. His publications include several papers in English and in Hungarian on different aspects of the digital turn in the history of culture; most recently “Face to Face: Towards a New Sincerity” (in András Benedek and Kristóf Nyíri eds. 2014: The Power of the Image: Emotion, Expression, Explanation. Series VISUAL LEARNING, vol. 4, Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang).

GOODNOW, TRISCHA, is a Professor of Speech Communication at Oregon State University. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Pittsburgh where she focused on Visual Rhetoric. Her primary research area continues to be visual rhetoric. She has published essays in Visual Communication Quarterly, American Behavioral Scientist and various book chapters. She has also published the books Parliamentary Debate: A Guide to Public Argument, The Daily Show and Rhetoric: Arguments, Issues, and Strategies, and the forthcoming co-edited book The Ten Cent War: Comic Books, Propaganda and World War II with the University Press of Mississippi. She has previously published two essays in the Visual Learning Series.

HAVASMEZŐI, GERGELY, born 1983, is a PhD student at Eötvös Loránd University (Budapest) at the PhD Program at the Doctoral School of Linguistics. He works also as an online journalist and editor. His research topic is the online media. His publications include “A Vörös Ujság. Egy kommunista lap a Népköztársaságban és a Tanácsköztársaságban, 1918–1919” [The Vörös Ujság. A communist paper in the Hungarian People’s Republic and the Hungarian Soviet Republic 1918–1919.]. Filológia.hu 2009/1. E-mail: havasmezoi@gmail.com.

HORVÁTH, JáNOS CZ., born 1975, is assistant lecturer at the Department of Technical Education of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. He has MSc degrees as Electrical Engineer (2000), Certified Engineer-teacher (2002), Economic-Engineer (2009). His research interests are focused on the role of knowledge networks and student networks in education; educational technology; the handling of the knowledge assets from the pedagogical point of view. E-mail: horvath.cz.j@eik.bme.hu.

KATZ, JAMES E., Ph.D., is the Feld Family Professor of Emerging Media at Boston University’s College of Communication where he directs its Center for Mobile Communication Studies and Division of Emerging Media. His research on the internet, social media and mobile communication has been internationally ← 184 | 185 → recognized, and he is frequently invited to address high-level industry, governmental and academic groups on his findings. His latest book is Philosophy of Emerging Media: Understanding, Appreciation, Application, edited with Juliet Floyd (Oxford University Press), includes contributions from Kristóf Nyíri and Zsuzsanna Kondor. He is also the co-author of The Social Media President: Barack Obama and the Politics of Citizen Engagement, published in 2013 by Palgrave Macmillan. Prior to his Boston University appointment, he was the Governors Distinguished Professor of Communication at Rutgers University (the title being the highest honor that Rutgers can bestow on one of its faculty) and served two terms as chair of its Department of Communication. Preceding his tenure at Rutgers, Katz was a Distinguished Member of Staff and director of the social science research unit at Bell Communications Research (Bellcore). Earlier, Katz taught at other universities, including the University of Texas, Austin, where he was elected chair of the Austin World Affairs Council. His many other books include Magic in the Air: Mobile Communication and the Transformation of Social Life, Social Consequences of Internet Use: Access, Involvement, Expression (with Ronald E. Rice) and Handbook of Mobile Communication Studies. Author of more than 100 scientific articles and papers, his publications have been translated into seven languages.

KRÄMER, SYBILLE is Full Professor for Philosophy at the Free University in Berlin. 2000–2006 member of the German ‘Scientific Council’; 2005–2008 ‘Permanent Fellow’ at the ‘Wissenschaftskolleg’ (Centre for advanced study), Berlin; 2007–2013 Member of the European Research Council; 2008–2014 chair of the Research Training Group ‘Notational Iconicity. On materiality, visibility and usability of writing’; since 2010 member of the ‘Senat’ of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Guest professorships in Zurich, Lucerne, Graz Vienna and Tokyo. Fellowships: International Research Institute, (IFK Vienna), Institute for Cultural Techniques and Mediaphilosophy, (IKKM Weimar), Media Cultures for Computersimulation (Mecs Lueneburg).

NYÍRI, KRISTóF, born 1944, is Member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He was Leibniz Professor of the University of Leipzig for the winter term 2006/07. His main fields of research are the history of philosophy in the 19th and 20th centuries, the impact of communication technologies on the organization of ideas and on society, the philosophy of images, and the philosophy of time. Some main publications: Tradition and Individuality (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1992); “Electronic Networking and the Unity of Knowledge” (in Stephanie Kenna and Seamus Ross eds. 1995: Networking in the Humanities, London: Bowker-Saur); “The Picture Theory of Reason” (in Berit Brogaard and Barry Smith eds. 2001: Rationality ← 185 | 186 → and Irrationality, Wien: öbv-hpt); Vernetztes Wissen: Philosophie im Zeitalter des Internets (Vienna: Passagen Verlag, 2004); Zeit und Bild: Philosophische Studien zur Wirklichkeit des Werdens (Bielefeld: transcript, 2012); Meaning and Motoricity: Essays on Image and Time (Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang, 2014). Further information: www.hunfi.hu/nyiri. E-mail: knyiri@t-email.hu.

SZABÓ, KRISZTINA, PhD, is an assistant lecturer at the Department of Philosophy and History of Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics where she teaches Argumentation, Negotiation and Persuasion Techniques. She graduated from the same university in 2013 as a Communication and Media Studies Expert specialized in Communication Design and Cultural Industries in the framework of MA in Communication and Media Studies Program. Research fields: Digital Literacy, Reading Process, PISA surveys, Hermeneutics, Literary Theory. E-mail: kriszti.szabo@filozofia.bme.hu.

VESZELSZKI, ÁGNES, PhD, born 1982, is a Senior Assistant in Hungarian linguistics (Corvinus University of Budapest), editor of the online periodical Filológia.hu (Hungarian Academy of Sciences). Research fields: impact of infocommunication technology on the Hungarian language (digilect), modern philology, grammar of spoken language, interdisciplinary connections between marketing and linguistics. Her publications include: “Image and Self-representation” (series VISUAL LEARNING, vol. 1, 2011); “Connection of Image and Text in Digital and Handwritten Documents” (series VISUAL LEARNING, vol. 2, 2012); “Promiscuity of Images: Memes from an English-Hungarian Contrastive Perspective” (series VISUAL LEARNING, vol. 3, 2013); “Information Visualization: Infographics from a Linguistic Point of View” (series VISUAL LEARNING, vol. 4, 2014); most recently: “Emoticons vs. Reaction-Gifs. Non-Verbal Communication on the Internet from the Aspects of Visuality, Verbality and Time” (in András Benedek and Kristóf Nyíri eds. 2015: Beyond Words. Pictures, Parables, Paradoxes. Series VISUAL LEARNING, vol. 5, Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang). Homepage: www.veszelszki.hu. E-mail: veszelszki.agnes@gmail.com.