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Digitalization and Society

Edited By Bünyamin Ayhan

This book presents a collection of papers by researchers from several different institutions on a wide range of digital issues.

Digitalization describes the phenomenon of how knowledge is processed and the processed knowledge provides social transformations beyond digitization, interaction, annihilation of time and space, the phenomenon of usage in multimedia. Transformed is not only the society but also its mentality. Digitalization reveals a sui generis digimodern process by processing modern structures with the help of compulsory tools. This process is a reconstruction of social structures and institutions on the basis of the digitalization perspective. Each social institution adapts this process and provides a contribution to the digitalization of society.

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Digitalization and Civil Society (M. Nejat Özüpek)


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Assoc. Prof. M. Nejat Özüpek*

Digitalization and Civil Society


Since the very first existence of human beings in the world, all historical periods have a name which almost the entire world unitedly accepts. One of the leading events which gives its name to the period through symbolizing a dramatic disengagement distinguishing it from the previous period and consists of historical significance is the invention of fire. After this invention, which symbolizes emerging into daylight from dark periods, each period received a name to describe it in the best way (Kaplan & Ertürk, 2012: 7).

McLuhan classified the history of human kind into four ages and stated that the transition to each period from the previous one occurred through a technological development which deeply influenced the social structure. Those four periods can be summarized as follows:

1.Tribal Age: The most important sense living during that age was “hearing”. Upon the invention of the phonetic alphabet, human history transited to the Literature Age.

2.Literature Age: During that age, human beings started to use their eyes in addition to their ears which they started to use during the Tribal Age. Upon the invention of the printing press, the Printing Age started.

3.Printing Age: When the printing press was invented, human beings saw printed letters and the meaning of the words changed at that point.

4.Electronic Age: The most important characteristic of...

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