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Die türkische Bourgeoisie – Ursprung, Entwicklung, Gegenwart

Meral Avci and Wolfgang Gieler

Die Regierungsübernahme durch die AKP 2002 war ein Erdrutsch auf breiter Ebene. Seitdem unterliegt die Türkei politisch und wirtschaftlich einem dynamischen Prozess. Dabei fallen nicht nur die AKP-Politiker auf, sondern auch die türkischen Unternehmer. Während die Politiker medial öfters aufgegriffen werden, ist über die türkische Bourgeoisie kaum etwas bekannt, weshalb dieser Sammelband mit einem deduktiven Ansatz die Geschichte der türkischen Bourgeoisie thematisiert. Er nimmt zunächst eine allgemeine Erläuterung des Begriffs Bourgeoisie vor, der anschließend auf die türkische Bourgeoisie übertragen wird. Die darauf folgenden Aufsätze setzen sich mit konkreten Fragestellungen auseinander, die den Zeitraum von den Ursprüngen der Bourgeoisie im Osmanischen Reich bis in die Gegenwart abdecken.

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The “New Islamic Bourgeoisie”: Engagement Patterns, Elite Competition, and Clientelistic Connections (Dilek Yankaya)

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Dilek Yankaya

The “New Islamic Bourgeoisie”: Engagement Patterns, Elite Competition, and Clientelistic Connections

Abstract: The transformation of Islamic movements within globalized capitalism was interpreted as a sign of post-Islamism. Yet, this chapter shows that market-oriented forms of Islamic mobilization also have authoritarian tendencies because they aspire to control capital accumulation processes, state institutions and symbolic representations of society.

If Recep Tayyip Erdogan has been claiming Turgut Özal’s legacy, it is because the decades of economic and financial liberalization under Özal’s governance in the 1980s and 1990s1 engendered a total restructuring of the dominant patterns of social groups claiming Islamic identitiy. Today, the Justice and Development Party (Justice and Development Party: JDP) is the hegemonic heir of this political movement. This study focuses on the socio-political foundations of an association of businessmen, instituted in 1990 as MÜSİAD (Müstakil Sanayici ve İş Adamları Derneği: The Independent Industrialists’ and Businessmen Association), which uses specific Islamic elements of identification to characterize its economic and political actions since the 1980s.

This is not the only business association regrouping Islamic-leaning Turkish businessmen, but it is the largest and most influential one.2 MÜSİAD is←115 | 116→ composed of more than 11,000 members, its network is organized at the national level with 81 branches in Turkey as well as at the transnational level with 55 offices and official representatives in about 60 countries. It is a large network for trade and information exchange oriented...

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