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Contemporary Approaches in Education and Communication

Edited By Hasan Arslan, Mehmet Ali Içbay, Alejandro J. Gallard and S. Lizette Ramos

This book presents a collection of papers written by researchers, teachers, administrators, analysts and graduate students working and doing research in the field of social sciences. The scientific studies include a wide range of topics from the analysis of social science textbooks to the teacher image in newspapers, the relationship between self-efficacy and cognitive level and the role of organizational silence on the loneliness of academics in work life.

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Turkish Adaptation of the Prenatal Maternal Expectations Scale (PMES) (Gül Şendil / Hilal Karabulut / Duygu Akyüz / Ayşegül Güner-Algan / Mutlugül Yahyaoğlu)


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Gül Şendil, Hilal Karabulut, Duygu Akyüz, Ayşegül Güner-Algan and Mutlugül Yahyaoğlu

Turkish Adaptation of the Prenatal Maternal Expectations Scale (PMES)


During the pregnancy period a new and unexperienced life begins and during this period, expectations, hopes, dreams and wishes come to the surface concerning the role of motherhood (Özkan, 1993). For this reason, the capacity to comprehend herself as a mother is so important for a woman, not only for preparing herself for motherhood but also to meet the needs the newborn baby (Barnard & Martell, 1995). During the pregnancy period, the woman starts to create some models about the kind of a mother she will be in her mind (Bruschweiler Stern, 1998). She observes the behaviours of other mothers around her, retains the appropriate ones and rejects the ones that does not fit with her. It is revealed that women who are able to dream of themselves as a mother during pregnancy, adjust to the process after maternity better compared to the ones who have difficulties to dream, and report more satisfaction (Lederman & Weis, 2009). Rubin (1984) informed that expectations of women before maternity helps them to adjust easily to the maternity process and to perform the role of motherhood successfully (as cited in Gress-Smith et al., 2013). Staneva and Wittkowski (2013) also investigated the beliefs and expectations of women about motherhood, and expressed that unrealistic expectations of pregnant women are...

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