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Radicalism and Terrorism in the 21st Century

Implications for Security

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Edited By Anna Sroka, Fanny Castro-Rial Garrone and Rubén Darío Torres Kumbrián

This book addresses the issues of radicalism and terrorism, which are of exceptional importance and relevance in contemporary society. Each of the two phenomena are analyzed from a multidisciplinary perspective. The book contains articles which explore legal, political, psychological, economic and social aspects of radicalism and terrorism. A portion of the contributions are of a theoretical nature, they constitute an attempt at constructing analytical frameworks for studies on the two phenomena. There are also studies of particular cases, such as radicalism in Poland and in Spain, as well as within the European Union as a whole. This collective work is a response to the need for analyses of two issues which are increasingly responsible for determining the level of security which characterizes the contemporary world.

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Notes on Contributors

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Notes on Contributors

Hallar Abderrahaman Mohamed – PhD Student in Law and Social Change at the University of La Rioja. Master’s degrees in Equality and Gender/Culture of Peace, Conflict, Education and Human Rights/ in teaching secondary School and professional training. Expert degree in Social Work, Degree in Social Work, Bachelor in Social Work. She has experience working in NGO as social worker in the humanitarian aid program for immigrants, asylum-seekers and refugees from Syria.

Elżbieta Borowska – PhD at the Faculty of Journalism and Political Science, University of Warsaw, graduated in internal security at the University of Warsaw. She conducts research about the protection of cultural heritage and cultural politics. Polish politician, member of polish Parliament and member of the Committee of Culture and Broadcast Medium.

Claribel de Castro Sánchez – PhD at The National Distance Education University (UNED) in 2004 and undergraduate studies at Complutense University of Madrid in 1996. Is Lecturer in the Department of International Law at UNED where she has been a faculty member since 1998. She has been involved in the Master on Security and Master on European Union, developed in the UNED, and in Master on the Challenges on Peace, Security and Defense, developed by the Instituto General Gutierrez Mellado. In these moments, she participates as teacher and Module Convenor in two European Joint Master Degree Programs with CEPOL and FRONTEX. In recent years, she has focused on International Law of Human Rights and Security Matters. Her research interests lie in the areas of International Law and European Union Law. She has written several papers (books, chapters and articles) in these matters. She has collaborated in national and international research teams. In 2004, she was distinguished with the Defense Award-given by the Spanish Ministry of Defense for her work.

Fanny Castro-Rial Garrone – PhD of Law at the Complutense University of Madrid. High Studies of Defense Diploma. Is permanent Lecturer of IS International Public Law and International Relations, director of the University Institute for Domestic Security Research, established by the National Distance Education University (UNED) and the Civil Guard, coordinator of the UNED Law School Security Masters and professor at the Spanish School of Diplomacy. Author of ← 315 | 316 → publications, among others, on Maritime Security, Immigration, International Protection of Human Rights and International Administration of Territories. Honors: Civil Merit Commendation of the Foreign Office, Silver Civil Merit Cross of the Civil Guard

Pablo de Diego Angeles Ángeles – PhD in Law at the National Distance Education University (UNED) (Doctoral thesis about Wealth and Estate taxes in a comparative frame). Degree in Law 1972–1977. Postgraduate exam (“Grado de Licenciatura”, Thesis for Degree purposes) in Law, November 1977, University of Santiago de Compostela. Since 01/11/1981: Different categories in University professorship. Now he is Professor Titular (Senior Associate Professor). Deputy to Dean School of Law, since November 2004 until now. His develop as Professor is now in the Department of Public Finance, Economics of the Public Sector and Public Management (School of Law UNED). Recent Publications: “La acción y los retos del Sector Público” Editorial Delta, Madrid 2005, Manual de Derecho y Fiscalidad Inmobiliaria, Editorial Jurist&Law Editorial, Madrid, 2008. Public Management in a Crisis context. Editorial Universitas Madrid 2014. Several publications in Tax Law reviews in Spain (Crónica Tributaria. Wealth local taxes in Spain, Inheritance Taxes in Comparative Law, 2013). Article The Housing Right as Human Right in International and Comparative Law (review of the Political Science Institut in Warsaww, 2014).

Magdalena Dobrowolska-Opała – PhD student at the Faculty of Journalism and Political Science, University of Warsaw, graduated in internal security at the University of Warsaw. She is a certified steward, director and co-founder of the Doctorals’ Research Association of Social Science. Her research interests focus on the topic of the role of police forces in providing safety and security during football matches. In 2015 she took an internship in one of the football clubs in England.

Juan Manuel Goig Martínez – Professor holder of Constitutional right accredited by ANECA. He is a Professor of constitutional law and teaches in several masters in Spain and in several countries in Latin America such as Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia and Ecuador. It is a member of the consolidated research group of UNED “Aliens and migration”, and for two years was its Director. Author of several books dedicated to the Constitutional right. Has published is the two monographs on rights and freedoms of migrants in Spain. His research interests are: rights of immigrants, asylum and refuge; rights of minors; administrative divisions of the State and constitutional jurisdiction. He has participated in several collective works and is the author of numerous articles in high impact journals. ← 316 | 317 →

Teresa Marcos Martín – PhD of Law at the National Distance Education University (UNED). Professor of International Public Law. International Law Department. UNED. “Vice Secretaria General Técnica”. UNED. Lecturer of Public International Law and European Law at several Institutions (Spanish School of Diplomacy, Instituto Superior de Derecho y Economía, University of Santander, University of A Coruña). Publications: Multiple articles, papers on European Union Law (Institutions, European Court of Justice, Competition Law), International Protection of Human Rights (Children’s rights, freedom of expression). Member of several R & D Projects.

Ángeles Martínez Boyé – PhD from UCL: Doctoral Program: Social Dialogue in Europe. Department of Social Labor and Employment Law. Degree in Law from the at the Complutense University of Madrid (UCLM). Master’s Degree in Integrated Quality, Environment and Occupational Risk Prevention, UNED. Degree in Social Work from the University of Granada. Accredited by the ANECA as Contracted Doctor. Assistant Professor Doctor at the Faculty of Law, UNED. Professor of Master of Social Intervention and Gender Violence (Faculty of Law) and Master of Social Problems (Faculty of Sociology and Political Science) UNED. Coordinator of Social Work degree. Career for more than 11 years in the field of social work practice in the Ministry of Social Welfare of the Regional Government of Castilla La Mancha. Co-author of several books, chapters and related research and career articles. Research interests: Gender and European Social Cohesion. “Welfare State-New Social Pact”.

Andrzej Misiuk – Professor of humanities, head of Chair of Security Studies in the Institute of Political Science, University of Warsaw. His academic specialty is the study of internal security, especially the history of police institutions and special services in Poland. He is also interested in internal security systems at national and European level. He participated in the work of the editorial committee Police Review and Internal Security, he is a member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police. He is the author of the first monograph on the history of the special services in the Second Polish Republic.

María Acracia Núñez Martínez – Professor of Constitutional Law. Vice- Dean of Academic and Institutional Relations management. Member of the Council of Government of the UNED. She lectures the Constitutional status of the foreigners and the protection of the rights of immigrants; International Constitutional Rights and human development; International Mediation and Arbitration; rights of foreigners, constitutional, legislative and jurisprudential delimitation. Comparative ← 317 | 318 → Law Member of the research group Immigration and Migration. She has published two monographs and more than twenty articles.

Jesús Pérez Viejo – PhD in Social Work, Degree in Psychology. Master’s degrees in Social Work, Sexuality, Prevention of Gender Violence and Victims’ Comprehensive Care. Expert in Psychological intervention with aggressors. Actually Assistant Professor at Carlos III University, Department of Social Analysis. Formerly an Associate Professor at the National Distance Education University (UNED). Over 15 years of experience in the NGO sector, developing key coordination and management functions. The last years has been working as Director of the Aspacia Foundation for Coexistence, specialized in fighting violence in all its forms as well as protecting victims and promoting equality in relationships, supervision, coordination and implementation of programs and research projects, dissemination, awareness and training of professionals and general public on violence-related issues. Coordinator and co-author of the books “Gender Violence: prevention, detection and treatment” and “Perspectives on Gender Violence”.

Piotr Potejko – Advisor to the Head of the Internal Security Agency, assistant professor and lecturer at renowned universities and author of publications in the field of security, terrorism and crisis negotiations. Holder of a PhD in Philosophy, lawyer, pedagogue. Long year assistant professor at the Faculty of Law and Administration at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, currently assistant professor within the Chair of Security Studies at the University of Warsaw. Awarded the Minister of National Education prize for his scientific work. His scientific work is connected to deepening knowledge in the field of the internal and of the international security of the state. Participant of the work of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Polish parliament as regards international agreements relating to information security. Representative of the Prime Minister in the area of proceeding and initialing international agreements and representative of Poland during meetings of NATO and EU Security Committees. Author of publications, among others, on special pedagogics, Polish intelligence services, terrorism. Editor in chief of the Przegląd Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego (Internal Security Review), as well as Deputy Chair of the Internal Security Institute in Poznań and honorable cofounder of the Polish Association for Supporting National Security (SWBN).

Anna Potyrała – political scientist, lawyer, professor at the Department of International Relations of the Faculty of Political Science and Journalism at Adam Mickiewicz University (AMU). Member of the Polish Society of Political Science ← 318 | 319 → (PTNP) and Polish Society of International Studies (PTSM), board member of the Poznań branch of the latter. Assistant editor in the academic journal “Przegląd Strategiczny” (“Strategic Review”), member of the editorial board of the journal “Przegląd Zachodni” (“Western Review”). Her research focuses on involuntary migration, public international law, international criminal law and the area of justice and home affairs of the EU. Author of several monographs, the most recent: UN towards the refugee problem. Genesis, concept and practice of activities (Warsaw 2015).

Daniel Przastek – holder of a PhD in political sciences (2004), playwright and theatre artist. Academic researcher at the Institute of Political Science at the Faculty of Journalism and Political Science of the University of Warsaw, deputy director of the Institute, responsible for academic affairs and international cooperation. Holder of a scholarship awarded by the Polish Cultural Foundation in Buffalo (USA). In his work he focuses on modern history of Poland and of the world. His professional interests include also relations between art and politics, with particular emphasis on the relations between theatre and politics. Author of the book titled Środowisko Teatru w Okresie Stanu Wojennego (The theatre circles during the martial law in Poland). Author of several dozen articles, both scientific and popularizing science. His works were published in: Notatnik Teatralny, Opcje, Przegląd Powszechny, Teatr, Nietakt!, Rocznik Nauk Politycznych, Świat i Polityka, Przegląd Europejski, Społeczeństwo i Polityka, Dzieje Najnowsze, Studia Politologiczne. He cooperated with directors Michał Zadara, Marta Streker and choreographer Krzysztof Pastor in productions at the Theatre Institute in Warsaw, Teatr Wielki-National Opera, the Warsaw Rising Museum, Teatr Nowy in Łódź, Teatr Polski in Wrocław, Z. Hübner Teatr Powszechny in Warsaw and Teatr Polski in Warsaw. Co-founder of theatre festivals and leader of the student theatre movement.

Anna Sroka – Assistant Professor at Institute of Political Science’s within the Chair of Security Studies at the University of Warsaw. Graduate of the Institute of Political Science at Wrocław University (2001), where she also completed her PhD at the Institute of International Studies (2006). Received her habilitation from Warsaw University (2015). Lecturer at the Antonio de Nebrija University and the National Distance Education University (UNED). She has undertaken scholarship study visits at the Free University of Berlin, the Autonomous University of Madrid and the University of Trieste. A member of many scientific organizations, such as PTNP, AECPA, IPSA and ECPR. She is a member of the board of the IPSA “Quality of Democracy” scientific committee, coordinator of the Polish-Spanish ← 319 | 320 → Scientific Research Network, and a member of the ECPR Executive Committee. She has participated in numerous domestic and international research projects, including. Her research interests concern various aspects of quality of democracy, both at the domestic and the international level, with particular attention paid to the issues of inter-institutional and electoral accountability. She is the author of numerous articles, as well as co-editor and author of several books. Her most recent work is Accountability in Studies on Quality of Democracy on the Example of Poland and Spain, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main, 2016.

Stanisław Sulowski – Professor of Political Science at the University of Warsaw and Director of the Institute of Political Science at the same University. For the past six years he has been the manager of the University of Warsaw Think Tank: Centre of Political Analysis. Professor Sulowski is editor of the Studia Politologiczne (Political Science Studies) quarterly and editor of the book series published by Peter Lang Verlag: Studies in Politics, Security and Society. He is also Member of the Committee of Political Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences. He has served as Consul of the Republic of Poland in Germany, 1991–1995. His academic research focuses on German foreign policy, state theory, European integration and internal security. He has received several scholarships and had teaching assignments in Germany, Russia, Austria and Ukraine.

Damian Szlachter – PhD student at the Police Academy in Szczytno, civil servant, former employee of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Prime Minister Chancellery, the Ministry of the Interior and one of the Polish law enforcement agencies, author of the book “The fight against terrorism in the European Union – new impetus”, co-author of two other publications: “The radicalization of religious views in Muslim communities in selected EU countries (Poland – Netherlands – United Kingdom)” and “Anti-terrorist information strategy”. The author of several articles in magazines such as: Internal Security Review, Terrorism, Police. Head of the research project: “The prevention and counteraction of the phenomenon of religious radicalization among Muslims living in Poland – as a part of a national system for early detection of terrorist threats”.

Rubén Darío Torres Kumbrián – PhD at Doctoral Program of Community law and European Union, Centers for European Studies at the Complutense University of Madrid (UCLM), and PhD by the UCLM at Doctoral Program in Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Dialogue in Europe. He is Professor and Director of Department of Social Work, Faculty of Law, UNED. Master Teacher FRONTEX for the management and control of European borders, led to the formation ← 320 | 321 → control of the security forces of Member States of the European Union. Member of the Scientific Committee Studia Politologiczne (Institute of Political Science of University of Warsaw). He has received Francisco Corell Foundation Award: Theory of Social Control Traffic.

Katarzyna Trofimowicz – PhD student at the Faculty of Journalism and Political Science, University of Warsaw. Graduate of International Relations and Spanish Philology at the Jagiellonian University, scholarship recipient under the Erasmus programme at Universidad Pablo de Olavide in Seville. Research interests: international and internal security, security strategies of Poland and Spain, strategic culture, political systems, Spanish territorial system, the history and politics of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, history and culture of Spain and the countries of Latin America.

Sebastian Wojciechowski – Professor at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań and the Institute for Western Affairs in Poznań. Head of the Strategic Studies Department of the Faculty of Political Science and Journalism of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. Security expert of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. Member of the Scientific Board of the Centre for Research on Terrorism, Collegium Civitas. Editor in chief of the Przegląd Strategiczny academic periodical. Awarded scholarships by the Foundation for Polish Science and the US State Department. Recipient of the Scholar’s Award from the Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland and an award for a scholarly publication in a European Union-wide contest. Author of publications, among others, on asymmetric threats, global problems, security, international relations, terrorism, nationalism, and the Balkans. He is the author, or co-author, of, e.g. The Faces and Problems of Modern Europe. Case Studies, (ed. with J. Jeszka) Poznań 2010; Poland’s Security. Contemporary Domestic and International Issues, (ed. with A. Potyrała), Berlin 2013; Relations Between The European Union and Egypt After 2001 – Determinants, Areas of Co-operation and Prospects, (ed. with A. Potyrała and B. Przybylska-Maszner), Berlin 2015. His most recent publications are: The Hybridity of Terrorism, Berlin 2013 and Understanding Contemporary Terrorism and Counterterrorism, (with A. Sadkowski), Dąbrowa Górnicza 2014.