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HR Policies and Maternal Labor Supply

The Example of Employer-Supported Childcare


Susanne Schneider

The author asks how far the extension of employer-supported childcare serves as a driver for higher maternal labor supply. She addresses this question by categorizing employer-supported childcare as an efficiency wage introduced by the employer to increase the working volume of mothers. Applying various impact evaluation techniques in an econometric analysis, the author concludes that the availability of employer-supported childcare has a positive impact on the length and working volume of mothers who return back to work after giving birth. Furthermore, the usage of employer-supported childcare by mothers with pre-school age children influences the amount of agreed and actual working hours positively.


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List of Tables

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List of Tables

Table 2-1:LFP rate in certain states in 2014 in percent for women and total aged 15 to 65
Table 2-2:LFP of men and women between 1960 and 2014 aged 15 to 65 years
Table 2-3:Proportion of LFP of women and men in various economic sectors in 2014
Table 2-4:LFP rates and weekly working hours from 1991 to 2014 for women and men
Table 2-5:Types of working hours per week in percent for women from 1991–2014
Table 2-6:LFP rates during life stages for men and women in 1980, 2005, and 2014
Table 2-7:Age distribution and LFP of women with and without adult children in 2010
Table 2-8:LFP rates and working time of mothers from 2006 to 2012
Table 2-9:Working time types of mothers by age of child and women without children in 2011
Table 2-10:Preferred and actual weekly working time of employed mothers in 2011
Table 2-11:Advantages and disadvantages of various kinds of childcare
Table 2-12:Number of children in public childcare facilities from 2006 to 2015
Table 2-13:Care combinations of children in different age groups in 2013
Table 2-14:Effect of subsidizing public childcare on LFP of mothers assuming no subsidies
Table 2-15:Effect of subsidizing public childcare on LFP of mothers assuming no restrictions
Table 2-16:Costs and benefits of different kinds of childcare assistance ← 13 | 14 →
Table 2-17:Absolute amount and proportion of on-site childcare facilities from 2006 to 2015
Table 3-1:Overview on determinants of maternal labor supply
Table 4-1:Application of ESCC on gift-exchange theory
Table 5-1:Operationalization of variables
Table 6-1:Distribution of observations in economic sectors before giving birth
Table 6-2:Regression results on duration and return-to-job after childbirth
Table 6-3:Working status in months after childbirth with availability of ESCC
Table 6-4:Regression results of CRM
Table 6-5:Distribution of mothers working in economic sectors when using ESCC
Table 6-6:Estimations on working volume when ESCC is directly available for mothers
Table 6-7:Overview of estimations on working volume with direct effect of usage ESCC
Table 6-8:Regression estimations: direct effect, ESCC usage, agreed weekly working hours
Table 6-9:Regression estimations: direct effect, ESCC usage, actual daily working hours
Table 6-10:Sensitivity results on direct impact of ESCC on maternal working behavior
Table 6-11:Estimations on working volume with indirect effect of available ESCC
Table 6-12:Overview of estimations on working volume with indirect effect of usage ESCC
Table 6-13:Overview of hypothesis analysis