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Culture(s) in International Relations

Grażyna Michałowska and Hanna Schreiber

This book presents a critical reflection on how the presence of «culture» in theory and practice of international relations is reflected in International Relations as a research field. The authors analyze culture in International Relations scholarship and evaluate culture in the practice of International Relations, as well as in International Law. The contemporary social sciences have put culture on a pedestal. The proliferation of the meanings associated with the notion of what culture is, has gone very far. The results of analyses presented in this book are meant to contribute to solving the existing confusion, to identify the research fields in IR where culture appears.

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Cultural Determinants of the Development and Observance of Universal Human Rights (Agnieszka Bienczyk-Missala)


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Agnieszka Bieńczyk-Missala

Cultural Determinants of the Development and Observance of Universal Human Rights

Key words: Universality of human rights, cultural relativism, United Nations, Islam, Asian values, African values

Abstract: The article analyses the importance of cultural factors in the following phases: conceptualisation of human rights, creation of universal standards, and their implementation. It presents intergovernmental discussion on the universality of human rights and shows examples of culturally-motivated human rights violations.

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