This collection of essays examines logic and its philosophy. The author investigates the nature of logic not only by describing its properties but also by showing philosophical applications of logical concepts and structures. He evaluates what logic is and analyzes among other aspects the relations of logic and language, the status of identity, bivalence, proof, truth, constructivism, and metamathematics. With examples concerning the application of logic to philosophy, he also covers semantic loops, the epistemic discourse, the normative discourse, paradoxes, properties of truth, truth-making as well as theology, being and logical determinism. The author concludes with a philosophical reflection on nothingness and its modelling.
This book collects 20 of my papers published in the years 2011–2016. All of them, with one exception, are devoted to logic and its philosophy. The essay XX is the only exception, although it also alludes to some logical questions. However, I included considerations on Keret’s House for personal reasons. My roots are Jewish. I spent the years 1941–1944 in Warsaw, not in ghetto, but in relatively normal (if anything was normal at the time) circumstances. Although my family survived, but… (let me not finish). Hence, I am very sensitive to philosophical (and other) problems related to the Holocaust.
The rest of the book is a sequel to my Essays on Logic and its Applications in Philiosophy, published by Peter Lang in 2011. But this collection is more compact because all chapters belong to systematic philosophy (I did not include historical studies). However, I continue topics considered in the mentioned book of 2011 and use similar analytic tools taken from formal logic, especially the logical square and its generalization. Generally speaking, both collections can be viewed as contributions to so-called philosophical logic.
The papers included in this collection are reprinted here with changes introduced for avoiding repetitions. Yet, particular chapters overlap at some points; in particular, the diagrams re-appear in few places. Although I tried to unify symbolism to some extent, there are some differences caused by the fact that specific letters and signs play various roles. However, the context always explains...
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