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Human Trafficking as a Quintessence of 21st Century Slavery

The Vulnerability of Nigerians in Austria

Chigozie DDr. Nnebedum

This book is a contribution towards a better understanding of the nature of the international crime of human trafficking. It is an impulse towards finding a new way at the international levels, and encouraging cooperation among nations in the fight against human trafficking and its root causes. The author analyzes human trafficking, which can be termed as «modern-day slavery» and in its complexity and dynamism ends up in the exploitation of the victims for the personal gains of a person or group of persons. A majority of the victims, especially women, end up in the sex industries. In most cases people are transported from the so-called underdeveloped to supposedly developed regions. As a result, women and girls are smuggled yearly from underdeveloped countries, for example Nigeria, to Europe and America.

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3 Causes of Human Trafficking


Being a crime that is ever evolving in nature, examining the causes of human trafficking is very essential in the fight against it. In the fight against human trafficking, emphasis is laid on prevention. For any prevention to be effective, the consideration of efforts geared towards the reduction of vulnerability is indispensable (Clark 2008, p. 59). In this regard, Michael Widgren identifies some factors that account for the reason for the market of human trafficking and summarizes them as “the sheer number of willing targets, driven by poverty and a lack of opportunity, to take chances with smugglers and traffickers to improve their lives… the internationalization of the world economy and the globalization of world markets…advanced communication and technology and cheap and rapid air travel.” (Aronowitz 2001, pp. 169–170; see also Widgren 1994).

The causes of human trafficking are numerous and could be, at times, complex because they are interwoven with the causes of migration. For human trafficking to take place, people must move. Movement of people, which is migration, does not always entail human trafficking but the traffickers utilize the vulnerable situation of the people fleeing poverty through migration to perpetrate their crime. Kenneth Bohl writes: “in many cases potential victims are trafficked in the process of migrating.” (Bohl 2010, p. 14; see also Schirrmacher 2012). When the situation in the country of origin is not suitable for survival, one of the options available to the people is to move. Thomas Schirrmacher, agreeing...

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