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Die «spanische Reformation»

Sonderwege reformatorischen Gedankenguts in Spanien und Hispanoamerika


Marina Ortrud M. Hertrampf

Der Sammelband beleuchtet die vielfältigen Auswirkungen der Reformation sowie die Verbreitung des Protestantismus in Spanien und Hispanoamerika vom 16. Jahrhundert bis heute aus (kirchen-)geschichtlicher, literatur- und kulturwissenschaftlicher Perspektive. Lange wurde die These vertreten, es habe in Spanien keine Reformation gegeben. Inquisition und Gegenreformation hätten den Protestantismus im Keim erstickt. Reformatorisches Gedankengut verbreitete sich tatsächlich weder flächendeckend noch führte es zu konfessioneller Spaltung oder kirchlicher Institutionalisierung protestantischer Gruppen. Und doch übten reformatorische Gedanken Einfluss auf die Kulturen und Literaturen Spaniens und Hispanoamerikas aus. Die Beiträger des Bandes widmen sich diesem, in der Forschung bislang weitgehend vernachlässigten Themenkomplex.

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Antoniterorden, Antoniusfeuer und Antoniusschwein in Spanien. Ein mittelalterlicher Heiliger und seine Spitäler überdauern die Reformationszeit (Wolfram Aichinger)


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Wolfram Aichinger

Antoniterorden, Antoniusfeuer und Antoniusschwein in Spanien. Ein mittelalterlicher Heiliger und seine Spitäler überdauern die Reformationszeit1

It was not in the period of the Lutheran Reformation that the Antonite Order was first attacked for its practices of alms collection. All through the late Middle Ages critics had raised their voices against the way the Order of Hospitallers of Saint Antony commercialized the image of ‘their’ saint, whom they had turned into a master of fire and a patron of domestic animals, both protecting and vindictive. As the promoters of the Protestant Reformation relied on new and effective media, especially printed pamphlets, they succeeded in questioning the cluster of associations that had been built up around the saint and his order.

By contrast, the Spanish Catholic Reformation aimed to purify legends of elements that were clearly fictional and to curtail superstitions and magical practices involving the name of the hermit saint. However, this process remained incomplete and although Antonite alms collectors became the butt of satirical writings and the community underwent a long period of crisis and decay, medieval practices and the beliefs connected with them survived until the late 18th century, as did the Antonite Order, even in places where there was no “fire” to be cured. It was then, that the pigs donated to Saint Antony were seen as unbecoming for a public order inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment.

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