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Etnicidade Linguística em Movimento

Os Processos de Transculturalidade Revelados nos Brasileirítalos do Eixo Rio de Janeiro-Juiz de Fora

Series:

Mario L. M. Gaio

Este trabalho discute língua, cultura e sociedade. Interessa à sociolinguística, mas também a outros campos do saber nas ciências sociais. A composição multiétnica da população brasileira é profundamente marcada por traços culturais de diversos povos, entre os quais o italiano. A imigração italiana deixou marcas culturais importantes em seus descendentes, tornando-os sujeitos transculturais. O aporte teórico se fundamenta em estudos de Contato de Línguas, Redes Sociais, Comunidades de Prática, Identidade, «Belonging» e Transculturalidade. A metodologia utilizada constitui-se de aplicação de entrevistas semiestruturadas a descendentes de italianos analisadas sob a perspectiva da Ecolinguística. O ecossistema cultural desses indivíduos revela a manifestação da etnicidade em movimento.

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Summary of Chapter 4

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Transculturality is fundamental to our thesis and is presented in this chapter from its seminal concept, given by Fernando Ortiz (1999 [1940]), until reaching the definitions by Welsch (1999), which are used as support for our study. To approach the topic, we have revised three basic elements to our research: migration, transnationalism and diaspora.

We took the example of Italians to talk about migration. The topography of the Italian territory has always favored migrations of its population to neighboring regions, be it to plains, where there were good conditions for agriculture, be it to cities, where better employment opportunities were availabe (BERTONHA, 2005, p. 81). The same author indicates that in 100 years, between 1870 and 1970, around 26 millions people left Italy, which corresponds to the entire Italian population in 1870.

Transnationalism is treated in accordance with the current study used by anthropologists, sociologist and American historians, who consider it a combination between associations of a political and economical nature, social networks and cultural identities that are connected to people and institutions of two or more Nation-States (MIRDAL; RYYNÄNEN-KARJALAINEN, 2004). To exemplify it, an individual born and raised in a given Nation-State, who has social and civic ties with the Nation-State of one’s parents, would then be a transnational subject according to this approach.

Diaspora and transnationality can also be studied together. Although they are distinct facts, there are elements of connection between both. The critical review, done by Bonnerjee...

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