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Etnicidade Linguística em Movimento

Os Processos de Transculturalidade Revelados nos Brasileirítalos do Eixo Rio de Janeiro-Juiz de Fora

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Mario L. M. Gaio

Este trabalho discute língua, cultura e sociedade. Interessa à sociolinguística, mas também a outros campos do saber nas ciências sociais. A composição multiétnica da população brasileira é profundamente marcada por traços culturais de diversos povos, entre os quais o italiano. A imigração italiana deixou marcas culturais importantes em seus descendentes, tornando-os sujeitos transculturais. O aporte teórico se fundamenta em estudos de Contato de Línguas, Redes Sociais, Comunidades de Prática, Identidade, «Belonging» e Transculturalidade. A metodologia utilizada constitui-se de aplicação de entrevistas semiestruturadas a descendentes de italianos analisadas sob a perspectiva da Ecolinguística. O ecossistema cultural desses indivíduos revela a manifestação da etnicidade em movimento.

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Summary of Chapter 5

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In chapter 5 we presented the concepts of linguistic ecosystem, cultural ecosystems and cultural-linguistic ecosystem. We also revisited the seminal concept of Community of Practice, first proposed by Lave & Wenger, in 1991 and later by Wenver, in 1998. We reviewed classic concepts of Speech Communities to present them through the bias of Ecosystemic Linguistics, a definition that we will use with the data of our corpus.

We begin with a summary of the main concepts that involve the ecology of language and Ecolinguistics. We refer to authors who lead the way of language studies based on Biology concepts, such as Voegelin, Voegelin & Schutz in 1967 and Haugen in 1971. Ecology has as object of study the relation between organisms and the world around them and within the relations between the organism and the environment in which they live. Evidently, there are processes of transmission of information involved. As the survival of species also depends on such processes, all of this relation has special value to humans, due to their distinct communication culture. So, the processes of language and communication must be understood as ecological processes (TRAMPE, 2016, p. 44). In a certain way, it is part of an idea developed since the 19th century, which shows that languages have life. However, they do not behave as organisms, but rather as biological species, parasites that have human beings as hosts (MUFWENE, 2004; 2008; 2016).

Having made those considerations, we explain what Ecolinguistics and...

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