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Etnicidade Linguística em Movimento

Os Processos de Transculturalidade Revelados nos Brasileirítalos do Eixo Rio de Janeiro-Juiz de Fora

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Mario L. M. Gaio

Este trabalho discute língua, cultura e sociedade. Interessa à sociolinguística, mas também a outros campos do saber nas ciências sociais. A composição multiétnica da população brasileira é profundamente marcada por traços culturais de diversos povos, entre os quais o italiano. A imigração italiana deixou marcas culturais importantes em seus descendentes, tornando-os sujeitos transculturais. O aporte teórico se fundamenta em estudos de Contato de Línguas, Redes Sociais, Comunidades de Prática, Identidade, «Belonging» e Transculturalidade. A metodologia utilizada constitui-se de aplicação de entrevistas semiestruturadas a descendentes de italianos analisadas sob a perspectiva da Ecolinguística. O ecossistema cultural desses indivíduos revela a manifestação da etnicidade em movimento.

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Summary of Chapter 6

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This chapter is dedicated to the investigation methodology used in this research and to the analysis of results. We used Holmes & Hazen (2014) as fundamental methodological input, mainly the chapters dedicated to sociolinguistic interviews (HOFFMAN, 2014, chapter 2) and to Social Networks, Speech Communities and Communities of Practice (DODSWORTH, 2014, chapter 17).

Our field research was composed of three stages. During the first one, we prepared written interviews to be done with leaders of three cultural associations connected to italianity. The second stage included the documental analysis with files in the city of Juiz de Fora. In this analysis we verified the importance of the community of Italians in the city until the middle of the 20th century and we gathered examples of interferences in the written register of the Italian language in the syntactic and lexical fields, motivated by Passive Familiarity (THOMASON, 2001). The third stage included semi-structured oral interviews done with Italian descendants of various generations in Juiz de Fora and Rio de Janeiro. From these interviews we identified the existence of diffuse Speech Communities, since they existed in a discontinued territory, and complex, because they were bi or trilingual (COUTO, 2016b), composed of Calabrian immigrants, who were, in their majority, dedicated to the trade of newspaper distribution. The manifestation of the Speech Communities happened particularly in newsstands, and in the case of Juiz de Fora, also at Casa d’Italia. This was the emergence of a cultural-linguistic ecosystem whose language of communication was...

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