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Beiträge zum Islamischen Recht XII

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Edited By Silvia Tellenbach and Thoralf Hanstein

Der von der «Gesellschaft für Arabisches und Islamisches Recht» (GAIR) veröffentlichte Band ging aus der Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft im Oktober 2016 in Freiburg am Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Strafrecht hervor. Die Vorträge liegen nun ergänzt um zwei weitere, themenrelevante Beiträge publiziert vor. Die Artikel beschäftigen sich schwerpunktmäßig mit dem islamischen Strafrecht im Iran und in Pakistan, vor allem mit Bezug zum Religionsstrafrecht (Lästerung und Schmähung von als geheiligt geltenden Personen oder Gegenständen) und Sexualstrafrecht (Ehebruch, Homosexualität und Vergewaltigung). Hinzu kommen Untersuchungen zu Strafzwecken im schiʻitischen Strafrecht, zur Auslegung der Scharia im Islamischen Staat (IS) und zur Iranischen Rechtsanwaltskammer.

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“Fossilized Sharia”: Law, Violence and the Caliphate of Raqqa (Rudolph Peters)

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“Fossilized Sharia”: Law, Violence and the Caliphate of Raqqa

Rudolph Peters, Amsterdam

1.   Introduction

In some Muslim states the domain governed by Sharia law has recently been expanded: Countries like Pakistan and Iran have extended the application of Sharia law from family law to other fields, such as penal and fiscal law. This was done by codifying pre-modern Sharia doctrines. In drafting these new law codes the legislators had to choose from alternative doctrines and norms existing in the corpus of pre-modern Islamic jurisprudence. This selection was informed, not so much by technical legal factors, but rather by political and cultural ones. The re-introduction of Sharia penal law, for instance, had a clear symbolic ideological function of opposing Western thought. 1 Here I would like to introduce the term “fossilized Sharia” as a metaphor for a modern type of selective Sharia law defined by a state and consisting of big chunks of obsolete and anachronistic doctrines and norms excavated from the pre-modern Islamic religious and legal texts. I call such doctrines and norms “fossilized” because they were not “alive” anymore, since, for a long time, they had not been applied and, therefore, were stagnant and did not develop. Usually, the selection of the doctrines and norms are motivated not only by purely religious reasons, but also to justify state policies. Now, the Islamic State2 is one of the polities that has used “fossilized Sharia” at an extensive scale. And its most conspicuous characteristic of...

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