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Beiträge zum Islamischen Recht XII

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Edited By Silvia Tellenbach and Thoralf Hanstein

Der von der «Gesellschaft für Arabisches und Islamisches Recht» (GAIR) veröffentlichte Band ging aus der Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft im Oktober 2016 in Freiburg am Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Strafrecht hervor. Die Vorträge liegen nun ergänzt um zwei weitere, themenrelevante Beiträge publiziert vor. Die Artikel beschäftigen sich schwerpunktmäßig mit dem islamischen Strafrecht im Iran und in Pakistan, vor allem mit Bezug zum Religionsstrafrecht (Lästerung und Schmähung von als geheiligt geltenden Personen oder Gegenständen) und Sexualstrafrecht (Ehebruch, Homosexualität und Vergewaltigung). Hinzu kommen Untersuchungen zu Strafzwecken im schiʻitischen Strafrecht, zur Auslegung der Scharia im Islamischen Staat (IS) und zur Iranischen Rechtsanwaltskammer.

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The Aims of Punishment in Islamic Criminal Law and their Reflection in the Iranian Criminal Justice System (Firouz Mahmoudi Janaki)

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The Aims of Punishment in Islamic Criminal Law and their Reflection in the Iranian Criminal Justice System

Firouz Mahmoudi Janaki, Teheran

Abstract

Punishment is one of the principles of criminal law that is related to criminalization and criminal responsibility. The three are considered as the basic elements in criminal law. A philosophy of punishment is necessary both to provide a theory of criminalization and also to give feature to penal responsibility. Punishment has unique features in Islamic criminal law, on the one hand because of the unchangeability of some crimes, and on the other hand because these crimes are regarded as specific to Muslims and Islamic society. It is common to consider four objectives of punishment, retribution, incapacitation, rehabilitation, and the protection of society. However, in the case of ḥudūd (sg. ḥadd) and qiṣāṣ crimes retribution is the main purpose, while in case of ta‘zīr crimes deterrence is considered the main purpose. In the case of punishments under the Islamic criminal Code of Iran, reform or rehabilitation is considered the central objective in most cases. However, within the system of Islamic criminal law, punishment is not the unique means for reaching the utilitarian objectives, especially rehabilitation and deterrence; repentance, forgiveness, atonement and otherworldly punishment, concepts that are founded in belief and true faith in God and the Hereafter, are the other flanks of the reactive system which have pervasive operation, and do not apply differently or stand apart from other punishments....

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