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Untangling the Mayhem: Crises and Prospects of the Middle East


Edited By Radka Havlová

The volume discusses the recent developments in selected countries of the Middle East and North Africa. Theoretical chapter presents the internal and external factors influencing the development and democratization processes. Based on these factors the authors analyze in depth the recent development in Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, Palestine, Syria, Turkey and Yemen. The authors demonstrate that the recent development in these countries varied significantly, mostly due to the difference of the historical, political, economic, security or religious conditions in the relevant countries.

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Libya (Kristýna Stejskalová)


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Kristýna Stejskalová


Libya is a country that was probably never meant to unite. Three main regions – Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan – that created the Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya in 1977 have so many differences that one would hardly believe that it is possible to unify them. Muammar Gaddafi believed and proved it, but failed to give the country a strong system anchored in institutions that would allow this unification to work even under a different regime. That is the main reason why the regime change in Libya in 2011 did not end with democracy but with a civil war taking place in Libya ever since 2011.

The regime change in Libya started in 2011, at the time when Arab Spring was developing in different countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Nevertheless, Libya is not an example of a country that changed its regime due to Arab Spring influence. Regime change in Libya was imposed from abroad, therefore it is qualified as Foreign Imposed Regime Change (FIRC),1 and due to its speed and the various interests of western countries that participated, Libya did not have enough time to realise Gaddafi was gone after 42 years of rule. Libya is an example of a country where democracy was imposed too fast, with low and underestimated preparations.

Regime change in Libya is sometimes associated with the Arab Spring, as it happened at the...

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