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A Reflection of Man and Culture in Language and Literature

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Edited By Mária Matiová and Martin Navrátil

This book consists of scientific chapters devoted to innovative approaches to examination of anthropocentrism. It depicts human beings as physical, spiritual, social and cultural creatures perceived through the lingual and literary lens. The publication has an intercultural foundation, as it examines Slovak, Russian, German, English and Romanian languages.

The authors of the book discuss issues which transcend the boundaries of philological research. They apply knowledge from various fields, such as psychology, communication theory, aesthetics, mass media and other social sciences in order to obtain relevant scientific results. The authors present critical analyses and interpretations of contemporary theoretical and practical problems occurring in the selected areas of expertise, and outline the perspective research possibilities.

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Interlingual Homonymy in Genetically Related Languages11 In cases where there is no need to set apart interlingual paronymy, we have decided to use the term interlingual homonymy as an umbrella term for both homonymy and paronymy; that means for similar or identical interlingual lexical couples.

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Alica Ternová

In their earlier history, Slavic languages developed as one relatively homogenous unit – Proto-Slavic – approximately until the 8th century A.D. As related languages, they show many similarities at all levels of the language system but also many differences that result from more than a thousand-year-long divergent development affected by contacts with related and non-related languages, systemic linguistic factors and also diverse geographic, historical, social and political factors. Lexical-semantic development is probably mostly effected by manifold influences.

The meanings of individual lexemes as lansigns are conditional for the individual language on specific methods of linguistic portrayal of thought-image processing of extra-linguistic reality, and on certain conventions and tendencies customary to a certain society that ascribe to sounds and corresponding graphic forms a certain semantic content. Formal-semantic discrepancies are thus relatively common and natural, nevertheless surprisingly intricate, especially in closely related languages. In practice they cause fairly major problems and misunderstandings, especially in the process of learning a new language and in the translation process. A cause of negative transfer/interference is, among other phenomena, the so-called interlingual homonyms, also known as false friends – words that have in two different languages either a similar or identical form, but a different meaning.

We build our research on interlingual homonymy on the thesis that the relations of interlingual polysemy in confrontational approach to lexis change to homonymous relations (Kollár, 1982, p. 224). Because we are talking about two lexemes both of which appertain to different languages, even...

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