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«Translatio» et Histoire des idées / «Translatio» and the History of Ideas

Idées, langue, déterminants. Tome 2 / Ideas, language, politics. Volume 2

Edited By Anna Kukułka-Wojtasik

Produit de la conférence « Translatio et Histoire des idées », troisième du cycle Translatio, ce livre réunit des contributions reflétant l’actualisation des recherches sur la Translatio et son rôle dans la marche des idées. Nous y voyons diverses conceptualisations de l’image de l’Autre et de son univers, dues aux déterminants idéologiques et politiques du processus du transfert langagier. L’objectif des investigations est de mesurer les infléchissements induits par la Translatio, ce passage d’une culture à l’autre.
Les auteurs abordent aussi bien des cas qui autorisent à identifier certains motifs et éléments récurrents accompagnant le processus de la translatio. La récurrence de ces aspects permet de formuler certains principes et règles, concernant le transfert langagier.

This book, a product of the "Translatio and the History of Ideas" conference and the third volume in the Translatio cycle, brings together contributions reflecting the advances in research on the Translatio and its role in the march of ideas. We see various conceptualizations of the image of the Other and his universe, due to the ideological and political determinants of the language transfer process. The objective of the investigations is to measure the inflections induced by the Translatio, the passage from one culture to another.
The authors approach the cases that allow identification of certain patterns and recurring elements accompanying the process of the Translatio. The recurrence of these aspects makes it possible to formulate certain rules and principles concerning language transfer.

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Translatio and the Making of Chinese Modernity During the Late Qing Period (1894–1911)

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Abstract: The study explores the function that missionary-translators assigned to the translation during the late Qing dynasty through the case study of the British missionary Timothy Richard (1845–1919). The missionary conferred to his translation a democratic function, which, via the transmission of political and social principles, played a central role in the conceptualization of Chinese democracy.

Keywords: Qing dynasty, missionary translators, translation, democracy, democratic reforms, Timothy Richard

1.1 Introduction

The history of China is marked by two waves of translation activities carried out by Western missionaries. The first wave was at the turn of the Ming and the Qing dynasties, characterized by the presence of Jesuits in China for two centuries. This period extended from the year 1583 when two Italian Jesuits Michele Ruggieri (1543–1607) and Matteo Ricci (1552–1616) obtained the permission to settle in the Chinese empire, until the death of the last Jesuit Joseph-Marie Amiot (1719–1793) in Beijing (Wu, 2013: 8). In addition to their preaching, the Jesuits devoted an important part of their activities to the transmission of scientific knowledge via translations. However, the eighteenth century marked a decline of the presence of Jesuits with the ban of proselytism by Emperor Yongzheng in 1724 (Landry-Deron, 2002: 12). The translation activities were interrupted for almost a century with the closed-door policy and several waves of expulsions and persecutions of missionaries and converts.

It was not until the beginning of the nineteenth century that Western...

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