Between Tradition and Liquid Modernity
The last decade was an exceptional period for the Icelandic cinema. The films produced during this time have won many prestigious awards at international festivals. Cinematic images of Iceland eclectically interlace myths, stereotypes and postmodern means of expression. At first glance, the local films obsessively repeat the same themes which might be incomprehensible for a foreign viewer. However, academic research on the most interesting motion pictures creates an opportunity to study the birth and development of small, but energetic and ambitious cinematography. Such an experience also allows analyzing problems related to the system of film production in this sparsely populated country and helps identify challenges during the process of introducing a local culture abroad. Finally, studying Icelandic cinema gives a chance to go on the audiovisual journey through the fascinating culture and unique landscapes.
The author of the book analyses popular topics and narrative strategies in Icelandic films. The research covers local versions of black comedies, road movies and crime stories as well as different figures connected with the motif of struggle between tradition and modernity.
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- Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2019. 327 pp., 70 fig. b/w
- Title Page
- Copyright Page
- About the author
- About the book
- Citability of the eBook
- Preface: A Cinematic Terra Incognita?
- Introduction: The Imaginary Island: From a Literary Myth to On-screen Stereotype
- Constructing a Myth
- (Re)constructions of the National Liberation Myth
- Cinematic Reinterpretations of Myths and Stereotypes: From the Cinema of Heritage to the Postmodern Irony
- Iceland as the Other (and Unknowable)
- Part One: Reconfiguring Utopias: Nation Building and Cinema
- 1 Nature, Countryside and the City: The Ideologies of Nation Building
- Country and the City in the Works of the Pioneers of Icelandic Cinema
- Country and the City in Selected Films of Friðrik Þór Friðriksson
- Conclusions: On the Crossroads of the Liquid Modernity
- 2 In the Land of the Great Narrations: Chronotopias, Uchronias and Nostalgic Past
- Nostalgic Returns to the Past
- In the Kingdom of Distance and Irony
- Elves and Globalization
- 3 Tradition, History and Liquid Modernity in Icelandic Musical Documentaries
- Rock in Reykjavík: Rebellion Against the Tradition and Narcotic Taste of Cultural Colonization
- Screaming Masterpiece: “Selling Out the Tradition and History”
- Heima: Community, Nation and Homeland as the Elements of the “Everyday Patriotism”
- Backyard: Beyond Nation and Nature
- Part Two: Figures of Tradition, Crisis and Change
- 4 Of Fishermen and Their Ships: Marine Motifs, Cruel Nature and Zeitgeist
- The Spirit of the Sea and the Wind of Change in the Documentary Cinema
- The Cinema of Seafaring and the Allegories of Crisis
- 5 Restless Daughters of Freyja: Female Soul of Icelandic Cinema
- Historical Background: Female Characters in Nationalistic Narratives
- Cinematic Female Protagonists as Victims of Violence
- Vamps, Warriors and New Models of Independent Women
- 6 The Curious Case of Anti-Vikings
- Introduction: Generation X and the Crisis of Manhood
- One Flew Over the Puffin’s Nest: Friðrik Þór Friðriksson’s Angels of the Universe
- The Plastic Sorrows of the Icelandic Peter Pan: Baltasar Kormákur’s 101 Reykjavík
- The Last Skáld? Marteinn Thorsson’s Rokland
- The Tragic Fall of Icelandic puer aeternus: XL by Marteinn Thorsson
- Part Three: Reimaging Utopia: Genres and Transnational Dreams
- 7 Icelandic Crime Stories
- Literary Roots
- First Steps into the Cinematic Genre: Reynir Oddsson’s Morðsaga
- Flirting with Neonoir
- Reinterpretations of the Gangster and Police Movie
- 8 At the Edge of World: Black Comedies and the Allegories of Crisis and Isolation
- Between Utopia and Dystopia – (Re)constructions of the Concept of Insular Life
- Allegories of Social and Economic Crisis
- 9 Cinematic Journeys Around Iceland
- The First Journey: The Island of Heterotopias and Pagan Beliefs
- The Second Journey: The Island of Stereotypes and Conventions
- The Third Journey: Bitter Flavor of Tourist Utopia
- The Fourth Journey: Pop-cultural Anti-utopia and Entrance into the Void
- The Last Journey: Escapes from Utopia
- Appendix: Tradition and Liquid Modernity in Documentary Cinema
- Part 1. Reinterpretation of the Elements of National Discourse
- Part 2. How to Survive After the Crisis?
- Afterword: Notes After the Year 2016
- List of Figures
- Bibliography of the Previously Published Parts of the Book
Appendix: Tradition and Liquid Modernity in Documentary Cinema
Contemporary Icelandic creators of feature films look for their own methods of expression and need to cope with an unfavorable funding, production and promotion systems. Documentary cinema does not have similar problems. Due to digital recording techniques, it does not require high funding and is able to sensitively look for themes that may attract people who are not familiar with the Icelandic culture and history. What is interesting, many non-fiction productions try to creatively reinterpret some problems and motifs that are characteristic for the Icelandic culture and related to the specific perception of changes taking place in the national identity. The postmodern figures of this identity are often transformed into an intriguing fusion of tradition and modernity358. It is significant that in contrary to the feature movies, often too hermetic in their themes, many documentaries are designed in the form of audiovisual equivalents of cultural-touristic guidebooks, which present the bright and dark sides of Icelandic life to foreign audiences. This chapter is focused on the clashes between the ideologized traditional discourses and modernity, and on the adjustment of the Icelandic cinema to various forms of universalized movie documentalism.
Part 1. Reinterpretation of the Elements of National Discourse
As I mentioned a few times before, the “tourist gaze”359 is an interesting strategy adopted to present the culture of a given country, which is often used by the Icelandic filmmakers. This concept takes the viewers to an “audiovisual trip”, showing them the...
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