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Environment and Sustainability

Edited By Celil Aydin and Burak Darici

The fact that environmental issues, which cause a significant externality within global goods, have gained a global dimension, necessitated more concrete steps for challenging with environmental issues. At this point, efforts to reduce environmental issues and protect the environment have been on the axis of sustainability. This book contains theoretical and empirical researches written by academicians and researches in the field of environment and sustainability. In the contributions, the macro dimensions of environmental pollution such as economic growth, health sector and technological development are examined. In addition to these, the contributors deal with micro dimensions such as consumption, marketing, accounting and firm behavior both in theory and empirically.

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Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation in Turkey

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Introduction

Global warming started to attract attention both in the academic literature and the policy arena in recent years, since there have been an increase in the risk of global warming arising as a result of industrial revolution transforming the global economy from organic economies based on human and animal power to inorganic economies based on fossil fuels. The main contributor to global warming is accepted to be the increase in Greenhouse Gases (GHG) through trapping heat and generating GHG effect in Earth’s atmosphere. The GHGs in atmosphere include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (C2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), hydrofluorocarbons (HCFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). The main properties of GHGs are summarized in Tab. 1 below. Information about the anthropogenic sources, the concentration, global warming potential (GWP) and the time that the gas remains in the atmosphere per each GHG are provided.

Tab. 1: GHGs and their Main Properties. Source: Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, 2017



CO2 is regarded as the main contributor to global warming having the highest heat-trapping potential among other GHGs in the atmosphere (Özmen, 2009; Aytun & Akın, 2015), with the highest concentration ratio of 280,000 per billion. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is taken as constant in CO2 remaining 100 years in the atmosphere (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, 2017). The main causes of CO2 occurrence are fossil-fuel combustion, land use conversion and cement arising from production. Increased production is called economic...

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