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Philosophical Problems in the Contemporary World

Edited By Dilek Arlı Çil and Nihal Petek Boyaci

The social and technological developments, social movements, scientific discoveries, economic growth or diseconomies give rise to many problems for human beings. Many disciplines such as economics, political science, architecture, sociology and psychology discuss these problems and offer solutions from different perspectives. Philosophy has its own way of dealing with these problems. As opposed to the common belief, philosophy does not only deal with ideals independently of what is going on in real life. The problems of the contemporary philosophy are also the problems of the contemporary world. For this reason, this book aims to present and discuss certain philosophical problems in the contemporary world and to suggest solutions to them.

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On the Logic of Constellation and Basic Challenges of Contemporary Political Orientations




The main concern of this paper is to get some insight into the logic of the constellation of some of the major contemporary political orientations, and also into certain fundamental challenges they face today. As a starting point, recall the fact that usually one thinks about democracy in two different ways, namely, in terms of “constitutionalism,” and in those of “egalitarianism”. In its former, narrower sense, democracy refers to the kind of political system in which power is exercised by public officers appointed through free elections. According to this constitutionalist notion—traditionally represented by the Right—democracy is merely a form of government secured by a democratic constitution. In its broader sense, however, the term “democracy” refers to an ideal which is not exhausted, by far, by the setting up of the basic democratic institutional framework. According to this second, egalitarian conception—traditionally represented by the Left—democracy should be about the well-being of the majority of people and not that of the few, as already Pericles emphasized. It is to be achieved through an ongoing and more and more extended process of democratization—as John Dewey, e. g., urged the establishment of a “democracy of rights,” a “social democracy,” and an “economic democracy,” beyond “political democracy” (Hickman, 2011: 13–182). Today, this ideal is mostly met by living up to the principle of equal opportunities.

Nevertheless, pertaining to these conceptions of democracy—and the traditional political notions of “Left” and “Right...

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