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Higher Education Reform: Looking Back – Looking Forward

Second Revised Edition


Edited By Pavel Zgaga, Ulrich Teichler, Hans G. Schuetze and Andrä Wolter

The central focus of this book is the concept of higher education reform in the light of an international and global comparative perspective. After decades of far-reaching reform, higher education around the world has profoundly changed and now has to face the challenges of the present. This volume takes a close look at these changes, the drivers of change, their effects and possible future scenarios. In their contributions the authors discuss a variety of basic concepts: learning and teaching in higher education; financing and quality assurance; governance change; massification vs. equity and equality; internationalization and mobility, the implementation of lifelong structures in higher education.
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Trends in Chinese Higher Education:


Opportunities and Challenges


Growth in the world’s largest higher education market is often masked by the tremendous parallel growth in China’s economy over the past two decades. National economic prowess has underpinned much of China’s success in all social sectors, including in the development of higher education. This trend is projected to continue well into the future as China’s robust economy is fueling an unprecedented boom in higher education. While its national GDP is on target to become the world’s largest before 2030, China’s higher education enrollments have already surpassed all other countries with enrollments at 28.2 million in 2015 compared with about 20.3 million in the United States and 26.6 million in India (U.S. Department of Education 2016; University Grants Commission 2015).

Ethnic minority students have risen in recent years in comparison to the overall percentage of total enrollments in the past 30 years, comprising 8.0 percent of total enrollments in 2015, compared to 6.6 percent in 2010, 5.7 percent in 2000, and 6.9 percent in 1991 (DP&C 1991; DD&P 2001, 2011; National Bureau of Statistics of China [NBSC] 2016). The number of ethnic nationality higher education institutions (HEIs) increased at modest rate over the past 30 years with enrollments following suit. The number of international enrollments also increased by 736 percent from 2000 to 2015, with 214,345 international students attending Chinese HEIs in 2015, compared to 130,637 in 2010, 74,323 in 2005, and 25,...

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