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Nationalism, Chauvinism and Racism as Reflected in European Musical Thought and in Compositions from the Interwar Period

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Andrzej Tuchowski

This book concerns the ways in which many different types of nationalism, chauvinism and racism penetrated into musical thought in the interwar period, and how the leading artistic personalities of that period reacted to these ideologies. The concept of "nationalism" is understood broadly in this book and covers the entire spectrum of its positive and negative aspects. The topics listed in the book’s title have been discussed on the example of selected four countries, significant with respect to population and territory and representing different social-political systems: Germany (mostly after 1933), Italy, Poland (after 1926) and Great Britain. This selection is also representative of the main ethnic groups in Europe: Anglo-Saxon, Germanic, Latin-Romance and Slavic.

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Index

Index

A

Acerbo, Giacomo 205

Adams, Byron 32, 37, 239

Addinsell, Richard 189

Alaimo, Vincenzo 194, 239

Alexander I (Tzar of Russia) 176, 217

Alfano, Franco 179, 183

Arendt, Hannah 18, 83, 215, 239

Arulenus, Rusticus 108

Assmann, Jan 172, 239

Atterberg, Kurt 8890

Auden, Wystan Hugh 150, 233

B

Bach, Johann Sebastian 28, 35, 43, 62, 65, 66, 75, 77, 93, 97, 125, 156, 202, 203, 223225

Bailey, Robert Warren 84, 239

Balicki, Zygmunt 9, 10, 12, 216, 230, 233

Barańczak, Stanisław 217

Barkan, Elazar 141, 142, 239

Bartok, Bela 42, 48

Bastianelli, Gianotto 182184, 186, 233, 234

Bastias, Costas 211

Bax, Arnold 26

Beck, Józef 132, 162

Beecham, Thomas 145

Beethoven, Ludwig van 24, 28, 33, 65, 66, 79, 90, 95, 96, 118, 127, 221, 223, 224, 240

Bell, Michael 138141, 233

Bellini, Vincenzo 79

Bent, Ian 75, 239

Bèrard, Carol 88

Berg, Alban 170

Berghaus, Günther 167, 248

Berl, Heinrich 65, 6769, 74, 117, 122, 126, 233, 245

Berlioz, Hector 224

Berry, David C. 226, 239

Bilica, Krzysztof 176, 240

Bimberg, Siegfried 218, 238, 246

Bizet, Georges 118, 120

Blessinger, Karl 58, 59, 7077, 79, 80, 96, 233

Bliss, Arthur 26, 145

Bossi, Renzo 183

Bottai, Giuseppe 200

Bourdieu, Pierre 94, 223, 240

Brahms, Johannes 28, 29, 66, 90, 96, 97, 202, 221, 224

Braun, Joachim 58, 69, 242, 245

Brecht, Bertolt 218

Bresgen, Cesar 97

Britten, Benjamin 19, 25, 48, 49, 148154, 175, 229, 240, 244

Brod, Max 121

Brooks, Geoffrey 95, 238

Broszat, Martin 51, 83

Brown, Julie 199, 243

Bruch, Max 29, 140, 183

Bruckner, Anton 95, 96

Brückner, Hans 70, 237

Bruno, Giordano 123

Brzeziński, Zbigniew 83, 241

Brzękowski, Jan 168

Buch, Esteban 97, 241

Budden, Julian 175, 176, 240

Busoni, Feruccio 187

Bychowski, Gustaw 225, 240

C

Caesar Julius Gaius 166, 169, 186, 207

Calmettes, Joël 158

Camrose, William Berry 52

←249 | 250→

Capell, Richard 170, 233

Caplicka, John 172

Carlyle, Thomas 21, 59

Carpenter, Humphrey 154, 240

Casella, Alfredo 168, 170, 182, 183, 207, 245, 248

Cassina, Wolff Elizabeth 199, 200

Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Mario 206

Chamberlain, Houston Stewart 52, 55, 56, 59, 61, 70, 146, 154, 196, 205, 233

Chamberlain, Neville 133, 149

Charlemagne (Charles the Great) 34

Carpenter, Humphrey 154, 240

Chase, Gilbert 137, 138, 176, 233

Cherubini, Luigi 162

Chomiński, Józef Michał 110, 242

Chopin Fryderyk 12, 13, 15, 2224, 26, 34, 42, 75, 81, 118, 126133, 223, 230, 236, 239

Chopin, Nicolas 130

Chybiński, Adolf 110

Chylińska, Teresa 26, 3840, 53, 238, 242

Ciano, Galeazzo 161, 162, 199, 244

Ciesielski, Rafał 105, 106, 240

Cieszkowski, August 231

Claus, Ludwig Ferdinand 63, 141, 159, 233

Cobbe, Hugh 29, 46, 47, 144, 240

Cogni, Giulio 199205, 233

Cooke, Arnold 170, 233

Cortot, Alfred 135

Coser, Lewis A. 172, 242

Crompton, Louis 24, 238

Czartoryski, Adam Jerzy 231

Czekalski, Tadeusz 209, 240

Czekanowska, Anna 42, 242

Czekanowski, Jan 104, 122, 233

D

Dahlhaus, Carl 36, 37, 100, 219221, 233, 234, 240

Dallapicola, Luigi 169, 184, 206, 212, 213, 234, 241

Danek, Danuta 225, 240

Darwin, Charles 37, 55, 62, 123, 147

Davies, Norman 83

Debussy, Claude 183, 221

Delius, Frederic 187

Dennis, David B. 84, 96, 100, 240

Dent, Edward J. 170

Depero, Fortunato 166

Dermo, Maiken 220, 234

Dickens, Charles 150

Diederichs, Eugen 54

Dmowski, Roman 1012, 22, 107109, 111, 161, 216, 234, 244

Donadoni, Omodeo Miriam 184, 234

Donizetti, Gaetano 162

Dümling, Albrecht 84, 240

Dunstable, John 125

Dziadek, Magdalena 41, 106, 109, 110, 240

Dziębowska, Elżbieta 60

E

Earl, Ben 169, 207

Eichenauer, Richard 61, 6365, 104, 126, 131, 133, 134, 201, 203205, 234, 236, 237, 239, 245

Einem, Gottfried von 99

Einstein, Alfred 16, 123, 134, 136, 215, 234

Eisler, Hans 218

Elgar, Edward 145, 175, 224

Eliot, Thomas Stearns 156

Elsner, Józef 223

Emmanuel, Maurice 92

Enescu, George 183

Engels, Friedrich 218

Erdlen, Hermann 97

Erhardt, Ludwik 101, 170, 241

Evans, Joan 89, 99, 101, 241, 246

←250 | 251→

F

Fauré, Gabriel 183

Fellini, Federico 186, 187

Finck, Heinrich 66

Fitelberg, Grzegorz 113

FitzGibbon, Katharine 97, 241

Flamm, Christoph 179, 180, 185, 189, 234, 237, 241

Fleetwood, Nancy 98, 136, 137, 139, 179, 234

Forte, Allen 226

Freud, Siegmund 141, 225

Friedman, Ignacy 81

Friedrich, Carl Joachim 83, 241

Froberger, Johann 66

Frogley, Alain 2729, 32, 239, 240, 241

Fromm, Erich 56, 67, 241

Fubini, Enrico 195

Fuhrmann, Heinz 100, 234

Funk, Walther 8789, 94, 137

Furtwängler, Wilhelm 88

G

Gabrieli, Antionio 118, 134

Geisler, Ursula 84, 241

Galilei, Galileo 123

Galilei, Vinzenzo 195

Garberding, Petra 88, 89, 237, 238, 241

Garibaldi, Giuseppe 162

Gasco, Alberto 179, 180, 234

Gates, Reginald 142

Gellner, Ernest 13, 47, 225, 241

Gentile, Giovanni 164

Gerigk, Herbert 70, 73, 100, 235, 236, 238

Gerlach, Kurt 63, 235

Germino, Dante L. 199, 241

Gershwin, George 189

Giardina, Andrea 163, 197, 199, 207, 242

Gilette, Aaron 199, 242

Gioberti, Vincenzo 197

Girth, Peter 84, 240

Gluck, Christoph Willibald 62, 134

Gnessin, Mikhail 122

Gniadek, Stanisław 164, 236

Gobineau, Joseph Arthur de 55, 56, 196, 235

Goebbels, Joseph 78, 8487, 94, 99, 101, 102, 136, 155, 158, 159, 169, 211, 235

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang 223

Goldbeck, Fred 92, 235

Gołąb, Maciej 17, 75, 110, 216, 223, 230, 242

Göring, Hermann 153

Grabowski, Zygmunt 104106, 235

Graf, Otto 85, 91, 94, 235

Granat-Janki, Anna 219, 247

Grazia, Victoria de 172, 246

Grazzi, Emanuele 212

Grigson, Geoffrey 150, 233

Grobler, Adam 15, 16

Gross, Walter 58, 59, 235

Grunberger, Richard 58, 67, 242

Grynberg, Karol 143, 242

Grynszpan, Herszel 153155, 158, 159, 243

Günther, Hans 57, 63, 64, 131, 199, 200, 235

H

Haddon, Alfred Cort 142, 235

Halbwachs, Maurice 172, 242

Halczak, Bogdan 53, 242

Hanau, Ewa 69, 242

Handel, George Friedrich 24, 125, 156, 225

Hänel, Wolfgang 51

Hanslick, Edward 62, 71, 74, 144

Haydn, Joseph 93, 224

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 13, 28, 34, 223

Heine, Heinrich 119

←251 | 252→

Helgason, Hallgrimur 98, 242

Helman, Socrate 57, 247

Helman, Zofia 33, 39, 42, 106, 240, 242

Henderson, Neville 52, 235

Herder, Johann Gottfried 28, 34, 195

Herennius, Senecio 108

Herold, Ferdinand 79

Herz, Henri 72

Hilberg, Frank 86

Himmler, Heinrich 57, 158, 201

Hindemith, Paul 88, 91, 170

Hitler, Adolf 5153, 55, 56, 8385, 9395, 99, 108, 112, 113, 133, 134, 136, 140, 141, 143, 146, 149, 153, 154, 165169, 199, 201, 209, 238, 241, 243, 248

Hlond, August 110, 111, 112, 114, 115, 235

Hobsbawm, Eric J. 22, 23, 27, 242

Hoffmann, Ernst Theodor Amadeus 58, 120, 245

Holst, Gustav 30, 32

Homer 33, 35

Horace 174

Hoss, Phoebe 15, 244

Horthy, Miklos 18

Howes, Frank 47

Huberman, Bronisław 135

Hünten, Franz 72

Huntington, Elsworth 142, 235

Husserl, Edmund 67, 68

Huxley, Julian 142, 235

Hynes, Samuel 134, 147, 148, 243

I

Illiano, Roberto 73, 170, 179, 194, 199, 201, 209, 239, 241, 243, 244, 245

Interlandi, Telesio 199201, 248

Isherwood, Chrostopher 148

J

Jachimecki, Zdzisław 39

Jadassohn, Salomon 119, 183

Janaček, Leoš 98

John Paul II (the Pope) 216

Jonca, Karol 153, 155, 156, 243

Jung, Carl Gustav 151, 156, 158

K

Kalinowski, Witold 58

Kalomiris, Manolis 210212

Kapelański, Maksymilian 188

Karłowicz, Mieczysław 12, 24, 47, 48, 182, 184

Kater, Michael Hans 8587, 89, 96, 99102, 243, 244, 246

Keller, Hans 49

Kennedy, Michael 30, 45

Kerman, Joseph 223, 243

Kienzl, Wilhelm 88

Klemperer, Otto 135, 146

Kochański, Paweł 113

Kohler, Andrew S. 100, 102, 234, 243

Köhler, Joachim 55, 243

Kohn, Hans 10, 11, 21, 27, 28, 147, 164, 229, 243

Korolec, Jan 107, 235

Koryś, Piotr 10

Król, Marcin 172

Krzyżanowska, Justyna 129

L

Lagarde, Paul de 54, 236

Lammers, Hans 86

Landra, Guido 198, 200, 201

Langbehn, Julius 54, 73, 236

Leifs, Jon 97, 98, 242

Lenin, Vladimir 218

Levi, Erik 45, 94, 136, 143, 145, 146, 225, 243

Lévi-Strauss, Claude 15, 52, 143, 145, 244

←252 | 253→

Libelt, Karol 13, 14, 23, 231, 236

Lipiner, Siegfried 120

Lipski, Józef 112, 113

Lissa, Zofia 123127, 129132, 236

Liszt, Ferenc 34, 42, 118

Lockspeiser, Edward 134, 236

Lorenz, Konrad 64

Lualdi, Adriano 88

Ludwig, Emile 103, 236

Luther, Martin 195

Lutosławski, Witold 25, 93, 229

Luzzatto, Sergio 172, 246

M

Macaluso, Alessia Angela E. 190, 244

Maffina, Gianfranco 194, 244

Mahler, Gustav 54, 66, 69, 73, 74, 77, 79, 113, 115, 118122, 140, 185, 224

Malipiero, Gian Francesco 169, 173, 179, 182, 183, 247, 248

Malvano, Laura 163, 244

Mann, Heinrich 58, 119

Mann, Thomas 58, 108

Marchand, Louis 35

Marczyńska-Negri, Jadwiga 190

Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso 166168

Martin, Benjamin G. 201, 244

Marx, Adolf Bernhard 74

Marx, Karl 218

Marylski, Antoni 114116, 236

Mascagni, Pietro 166, 173, 184, 194

Massaka, Iwona 95

Massarani, Renzo 194, 206, 245

Matzke, Hemann 5964, 71, 75, 126, 203, 204, 236

Mazzini, Giuseppe 231

McClatchie, Stephen 86, 244

Meissner, Max 105, 135, 179, 236

Melchiorre, Nicola 180182, 185, 186, 236

Metaxas, Ioannis 209, 210, 212

Meyer, Krzysztof 216

Meyerbeer, Giacomo 73, 76, 77, 79, 119, 120, 140

Micewski, Andrzej 109, 244

Michahelles, Ernesto (Thayaht) 166

Michałowski, Kornel 24, 26, 4144, 238

Mickiewicz, Adam 22, 162, 231

Mierczyński, Stanisław 110

Mieses, Mateusz 128130, 236

Milton, John 34

Mitchell, Donald 151, 244

Mochnacki, Maurycy 13, 22, 217, 236

Mommsen, Theodor 195

Moniuszko, Stanisław 48

Monteverdi, Claudio 184

Moore, George Edward 37

Morris, Gwyn 189, 245

Moseley, Ray 161, 244

Mosley, Leonard 52, 112, 155, 244

Mosley, Oswald 52

Mosse, George Lachmann 53, 54, 56, 67, 73, 166, 244

Motte-Haber, Helga de la 220, 234

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus 62, 66, 79, 90, 93, 127, 221, 223, 224

Müller, Gottfried 97, 241

Müller, Rolf-Dieter 113

Müller-Blattau, Josef 66, 80, 236

Murray, Gilbert 33

Mussolini, Benito 164, 213, 236

Mussolini, Romano 165, 178, 179, 209, 210, 212

Mussorgsky, Modest 34, 48, 118

Myaskovsky, Nicolai 93

N

Navickaite, Lina 222

Neugroschel, Joachim 15, 244

Neusiedler, Hans 118

←253 | 254→

Nice, Richard 223, 240

Nicolai, Michela 177, 217, 244

Nicolodi, Fiamma 170, 190, 244

Nietzsche, Friedrich 59, 69

Noskowski, Zygmunt 41

Nott, Josiah Clark 16

Nowaczyński, Adolf 162, 163, 237

O

Octavian, Augustus (Roman emperor) 169

Oboussier, Robert 89, 237

Offenbach, Jacques 77, 118, 120

Omodeo, Miriam Donadoni 184, 234

Orff, Carl 93, 99102, 168, 171, 235, 243, 247

Orwell, George 148

Osmond-Smith, David 167, 168, 244

Otręba, Bolesław 143, 242

Owen, Wilfred 148, 156

P

Paderewski, Ignacy Jan 12, 111, 127, 132, 237

Painter, Karen 65, 73, 8385, 9597, 168, 193, 244, 245

Paladino, Franco 165, 237

Palester, Roman 229

Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi 64

Parry, Hubert 28, 34

Paul, Catherine 182, 245

Pauman, Conrad 66

Penderecki, Krzysztof 93, 216

Pennybacker, Susan D. 134, 135, 141, 245

Pessenlehner, Robert 58, 59, 61, 65, 66, 237

Petrassi, Goffredo 167, 190, 244

Pfitzner, Hans 69, 97, 100

Piccardi, Carlo 194, 206, 245

Pilati, Mario 73, 202, 245

Piłsudski, Józef 18, 108, 109, 112, 245

Piotrowska, Maria 224

Pirandello, Luigi 166

Pisacane, Carlo 197

Pizzetti, Ildebrando 179, 183

Plantinga, Leon 27, 245

Podwysocka, Magdalena 95

Poggesi, Marta 202, 245

Poliński, Aleksander 41

Polony, Leszek 42, 245

Ponchielli, Amilcare 162

Pople, Anthony 226, 246

Porfino, Ennio 173

Prampolini, Enrico 166168

Prokofiev, Siergei 48, 93

Prosnak, Karol Mieczysław 106

Pruszyński, Mieczysław 108, 245

Przybyszewski, Stanisław 12, 184, 237

Puccini, Antonio 212

Puccini, Giacomo 171, 173178, 183, 187, 212, 240, 244, 246

Pessenlehner, Robert 58, 59, 61, 65, 66, 237

Poliński, Aleksander 41

Pound, Ezra 182, 245

Przybyszewski, Stanisław 12, 184, 237

Purcell, Henry 34

R

Raabe, Peter 59, 101, 139, 140, 237

Rachmaninov, Sergei 122, 219

Rath, Ernst von 155, 159

Raynor, Henry B. 138, 237

Rausching, Herman 51

Rauter, Ferdinand 46, 49

Ravel, Maurice 3032, 48, 92, 144, 155, 177, 178, 183, 186, 187, 196, 210

Read, Donald 22, 245

←254 | 255→

Regamey, Konstanty 33

Reiss, Józef 14, 114, 116122, 142, 237

Renan, Ernst de 22

Rensis, Raffaello de 165, 237

Respighi, Elsa 189, 245

Respighi, Ottorino 19, 90, 173, 178191, 206, 230, 234, 236, 241, 245, 248

Reti, Rudolf 222, 227

Reusch, Fritz 57, 59, 62, 71, 78, 237

Ribbentrop, Joachim von 112, 143, 145, 242

Riethmüller, Albrecht 58, 86, 89, 96, 244, 245, 246

Rieti, Vittorio 206

Rimsky-Korsakov, Nicolai 118, 122, 182, 183

Rock, Christa 70, 237

Rogowski, Ludomir Michał 42, 248

Romanou, Katy 209, 210212, 245

Rosenberg, Alfred 57, 71, 84, 99, 101

Rossi, Nino 179, 237

Rossi, Salomone 118

Rossini, Gioacchino 79, 162

Rothgeb, John 226

Rothstein, William 225, 226, 245

Różycki, Ludomir 106

Rubinstein, Anton 113, 118, 120

Rubinstein, Artur 128, 219, 221

Russell, Bertrand 28, 37

Russel, Thomas A. 140, 237

Russolo, Luigi 193, 194, 244

S

Sachs, Harvey 178, 245

Sachs, Julius 81, 238

Sala, Massimiliano 73, 78, 94, 199, 201, 209, 213, 234, 243, 245, 246

Salaris, Claudia 168, 245

Salvaneschi, Nino 132

Salvatori, Fausto 174

Samson, Jim 225

Sandelewski, Wiarosław 171, 246

Sarfatti, Michele 198, 246

Saryusz-Wolska, Magdalena 172, 239

Scarlatti, Domenico 75, 223, 239

Schaffer, Bogusław 191

Schaffer Gavin 141, 246

Schubert, Giselher 89, 246

Schubert, Franz 29, 90, 221

Scuccimarra, Luca 172, 246

Scheding, Florian 225

Schemann, Ludwig 64, 238

Schenker, Heinrich 75, 222226, 239, 245, 246

Schering, Arnold 66

Schlegel, Friedrich 195

Schleiermacher, Friedrich 36

Schönberg, Arnold 29, 48, 65, 69, 72, 73, 99, 102, 121, 140, 168, 170, 222, 224, 225, 227, 230, 238, 245, 247

Schopenhauer, Arthur 184

Schroeder, Christa 95, 238

Schubert, Franz 29, 89, 90, 221, 246

Schulze-Naumburg, Paul 64, 238

Schumann, Otto 29, 66, 79, 88, 224

Schumann, Robert 119

Schutz, Heinrich 134

Scriabin, Alexander 122, 184

Shaw, George Bernard 24, 238

Shostakovich, Dmitri 93, 102, 122, 153, 189

Shkliar, Ephraim 122

Shirer, William L. 95

Sholokhov, Mikhail 218

Sibelius, Jean 98, 145

Siegel, Hedi 225, 245

Siegmund-Schultze, Walther 218, 238, 246

Silva, Manuel Deniz 97, 241

←255 | 256→

Simon, John 52

Sitt, Hans 183

Skowron, Zbigniew 21, 42, 247, 248

Smith, Anthony David 9, 22, 23, 46, 47, 49, 246

Snarrenberg, Robert 226, 246

Sokorski, Włodzimierz 215

Sousa, John Philip 175

Speer, Albert 95

Spohr, Ludwig 79

Sponheuer, Bernd 94, 95, 246

Stalin, Josef Vissarionovich 83, 151, 165, 215

Stege, Fritz 86, 89, 90, 93, 94, 96, 98100, 238

Stein, Leonard 99, 238

Steinweis, Alan E. 84, 246

Stengel, Theo 70, 236, 238

Stęszewski, Jan 70

Stevens, Robert 138, 237

Stone, Marla Susan 177

Strauss, Richard 86, 88, 100, 118, 139, 143, 145, 184

Stravinsky, Igor 42, 48, 99102, 122, 170, 178, 181, 184, 241

Strzelecki, Paweł 217, 246

Stuckenschmidt, Hans Heinz 86, 171

Studdert, Will 78, 246

Sullivan, Arthur Randall 34

Swingler, Randall 152, 153

Szoka, Marta 222, 247

Szymanowski, Karol 12, 19, 21, 2426, 2832, 3645, 4749, 53, 67, 90, 106, 110, 113116, 132, 170, 173, 184, 186, 229, 238, 240, 242, 247, 248

T

Taine, Hippolyte 42

Tallis, Thomas 31, 34

Tansman, Aleksander 33

Tarasti, Eero 222

Taruskin, Richard 100, 179, 224, 225, 246, 247

Taylor, A.J.P. 140, 141, 149, 247

Taylor, Ronald 55, 243

Tchaikovsky, Pyotr 122, 219221, 224

Ternon, Yves 57, 69, 247

Tempesti, Fernando 165, 247

Thayaht, Ernesto 166, 167

Thomson, Dorothy 158

Tieck, Ludwig 36, 58

Tippett, Michael 19, 149151, 154156, 158, 238

Tolbert, Elizabeth 220, 247

Toni, Alcesto 183

Tomaszewski, Mieczysław 176, 240

Torrefranca, Fausto 171, 183, 184

Toscanini, Arturo 135, 206

Towiański, Andrzej 22

Trochimczyk, Maria 218, 247

Trzęsiok, Marcin 222, 247

Tsagkarakis, Ioannis 210, 211, 247

Twardowski, Kazimierz 126

Turba, Allessandro 173, 247

V

Vaughan Williams Ursula 146

Vaughan, Williams Ralph 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 27, 122, 143, 144, 187, 238, 239, 241, 247, 248

Versari, Maria Ellena 167, 248

Visco, Sabato 201

Vitzhum, Thomas Sebastian 248

W

Walicki, Andrzej 11, 248

Walker, Alan 227

Walldorf, Jerzy 239

Walter, Bruno 146

Walton, William 48, 145

Wapiński, Roman 107, 109, 161, 248

←256 | 257→

Washbourne, Christopher 220, 234

Waterhouse John C.G. 184

Waterhouse, Janet 191

Wiatr, Jerzy Józef 16, 248

Wieczorek, Sławomir 218

Weiss-Wendt, Anton 248

Wieniewski, Ignacy 108, 239

Wightman, Alistair 39, 45, 242, 248

Władysław II Jagiełło (King of Poland) 14

Władysław IV Waza (King of Poland) 14

Wójcik-Kepreulian, Bronisława 104, 116, 239

Wójtowicz, Ewa 42, 248

Woltmann, Ludwig 196, 239

Woytowicz, Bolesław 189

Wulf, Josef 96, 238, 248

Y

Yeomans, Roy 199, 248

Young, Percy M. 28, 248

Z

Zając, Ewa 222, 247

Zbyszewski, Karol 198, 239

Zieliński, Tadeusz A. 224

Zubillaga, Igor Contreras 97, 241

Zumsteeg, Johann Rudolf 79

Zerańska-Kominek, Sławomira 51

Zweig, Stephan 86

Zychowicz, Piotr 112

←257 | 258→ ←258 | 259→