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Traumatic Experiences and Dyslexia


Edited By Evelin Witruk and Dian Sari Utami

The main topics of the book are traumatic experiences, stress processing and dyslexia with some new perspectives on this old phenomenon. The authors of the book articles are from Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Morocco, Sudan, Iran, Spain, Syria, Portugal, and Germany. The interdisciplinary character of this book is represented in contributions of scientists from different areas of psychology, special education, and linguistics.

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Concept Analysis of Bystander Effect in Road Traffic Injuries: A Hybrid Model


Abstract: The bystander effect that occurs at the scene of traffic accidents and emergencies can affect individuals’ helping behavior. In this respect, several definitions have been provided to clarify and develop this concept. In the present study, the bystander effect occurring at the scene of traffic accidents in the Iranian context was analyzed. In this study, the concept analysis of the bystander effect was performed using a hybrid method recommended by Schwartz-Barcott in three phases (theoretical, fieldwork, and final analysis). Within the theoretical phase, a literature review was conducted employing different databases, and the related studies were analyzed. In the fieldwork phase, interviews were carried out with eight medical emergency personnel followed by qualitative content analysis of the transcriptions. Finally, in the last phase, an overall analysis was performed to come up with a clear definition of the given concept. In the final analysis phase, the following definition was achieved by integrating the two theoretical and fieldwork phases: “The bystander effect is a phenomenon occurring at the scene of traffic accidents and, in particular, emergencies. Within this phenomenon, the presence of bystanders at the scene can reduce the likelihood of individuals offering help to the injured. Observing the unstable condition of the injured and the fear of secondary damage also causes the bystander to stay out of the scene. Moreover, each bystander assumes others responsible for helping the injured. Influence from others’ interpretations of the situation similarly helps with reinforcing this behavior.” The study results could pave the...

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