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Traumatic Experiences and Dyslexia

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Edited By Evelin Witruk and Dian Sari Utami

The main topics of the book are traumatic experiences, stress processing and dyslexia with some new perspectives on this old phenomenon. The authors of the book articles are from Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Morocco, Sudan, Iran, Spain, Syria, Portugal, and Germany. The interdisciplinary character of this book is represented in contributions of scientists from different areas of psychology, special education, and linguistics.

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The Impact of Diglossia on Arabic Reading Comprehension

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Abstract: Diglossia emerges in a situation where two distinct varieties of a language are used alongside within a particular community. In this case, one is considered as a high or standard variety and the second one as a low or colloquial variety. Arabic is an extreme example of a highly diglossic language due to complexity in orthography and cursive consonant script. Lack of representation of short vowels in the alphabet is also Arabic idiosyncratic, which further negatively affects basic literacy skills attainment and contributes to the difficulty of reading comprehension tasks in Arabic. This article tries to conceptualize the notion of diglossia and its functions and characteristics. It further investigates the diglossic nature of Arabic and its impact on literacy attainment and reading comprehension process about the writing system, by scrutinising some empirical studies and relevant literature in the field.

Keywords: diglossia, standard Arabic, literacy acquisition, reading comprehension

1 Introduction

Diglossia is a sociolinguistic term that was reconceptualized by Ferguson in 1959, referring to a situation in which two varieties of a language exist side by side throughout the community, with each having a definite role to play. Ferguson identified four languages as being diglossic namely; Arabic, Greek, Haitian Creole, and Swiss German. The two varieties of any diglossic language co-exist alongside each other within a single community, one functioning as a standard and high variety (H) and the second one as a low variety (L). Therefore, diglossia essentially differs from bilingualism...

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