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English(es) in Post-Independence Namibia

An Investigation of Variety Status and Its Implications for English Language Teaching


Helene Steigertahl

This volume contributes to the fields of World Englishes, English Language Teaching and Second Language Acquisition, assessing the English(es) spoken in post-Independence Namibia beyond variety status. Based on questionnaires and corpus analysis, the author analyzes morphosyntactical structures, language use and attitudes towards English(es) in comparison to home languages. She gives new insights into the structure of spoken language and potential varieties of English in particular. Focus is put on a geographical area that only recently attracted increasing attention in the field of World Englishes. The author’s work can be regarded as an attempt to bridge several aspects of the frequently discussed «paradigm gap» between World Englishes and Second Language Acquisition studies.

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7 Morphosyntactic Structures of English(es) Spoken by Black Namibians After Independence


This chapter analyzes potential morphosyntactic features of the English(es) spoken by Black Namibians after independence on the basis of ESBNaPI. Since an infinite number of potential structures are possible to be detected in ESBNaPI, the methodological framework is based on formerly listed features1 of WE (Platt et al. 1984; B. Kachru 1985; Crystal 2003; Jenkins 2009: 30; Kortmann & Szmrecsanyi 2004; Kortmann 2010), with a focus on English(es) in Southern Africa (Bokamba 1982; Chishimba 1984; Schmied 1991; Mesthrie & Bhatt 2008; Brato & Huber 2012; Siemund 2013; Paulasto 2014; Kruger & van Rooy 2016; see also section 3.2), as, for instance, presented in the Handbook of Varieties of English (Bowerman 2008; McCormick 2008; Mesthrie 2008a, 2008b), and on previous research on potential features of English(es) in Namibia in particular (Buschfeld & Kautzsch 2014).

After re-reading the transcriptions of the 77 interviews and marking potential ‘deviations’ (Kachru 1982: 45; see section 2.3) from so-called ‘Standard British English’2, these structures were manually searched for with the help of AntConc. With this program, the context in which they appear could be analyzed further. The structures are described in the following, according to the quantitative benchmarks for potential feature appearance put forward by Buschfeld (2013: 106; cf. section 2.3), Mollin (2006: 139) and Hamid & Baldauf Jr (2013: 486).3 Besides, only structures that were suggested by previous research (e.g. Buschfeld & Kautzsch 2014) and those that occur at least five times in the corpus were analyzed...

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