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Immigration Policy Studies

Theoretical and Empirical Migration Researches

Edited By Ufuk Bingöl

The migration movement, which has taken place since the beginning of the story of mankind, increasingly continues voluntarily or compulsorily for various reasons such as social challenges, technological revolutions and wars. Due to migration, many new questions emerge depending on these issues. Researchers from many different disciplines are looking for answers to these questions arising from migration movements. This book covers deep researches from different perspectives and disciplines upon migration by successful and expert researchers in their field. In this book, different and rigorous analyses of all areas influenced by migration are carried out and various dimensions of immigration studies are shown.

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Migration: Employment, Productivity and Openness


1 Introduction

Migration is defined as the mobility created by the people who seek to achieve geographical mobility toward places where they can escape unfavorable conditions and reduced likelihood of fulfilling their expectations in their own region and country. This displacement may create new, positive or negative, impacts in the destination of migration with regard to economic, social, cultural, and other aspects. Additionally, such mobility leads to the spatial displacement of human capital; in other words, the resulting abundance of human capital and its incorporation into the production processes in the destinations of the migration may have positive and/or negative effects on employment and productivity.

International migration results into a decrease in population in one region and an increase in population in another because of the displacement of work force (Gençler and Apak, 2009). In addition to the economic, social, cultural, religious, militaristic, environmental, and other factors affecting large masses of people, the problems or consequences that people experience individually at the micro level can lead to migration. Regardless of the diversity of its causes, migration has the inevitable consequence of forcing a considerable number of individuals to search for jobs and work in the destination of the migration. It creates a positive effect in the country of origin in the form of a reduction in unemployment due to the creation of new jobs for the domestic labor force (Gençler, 2018). On the contrary, the positive effects in the destination country include...

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