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Immigration Policy Studies

Theoretical and Empirical Migration Researches

Edited By Ufuk Bingöl

The migration movement, which has taken place since the beginning of the story of mankind, increasingly continues voluntarily or compulsorily for various reasons such as social challenges, technological revolutions and wars. Due to migration, many new questions emerge depending on these issues. Researchers from many different disciplines are looking for answers to these questions arising from migration movements. This book covers deep researches from different perspectives and disciplines upon migration by successful and expert researchers in their field. In this book, different and rigorous analyses of all areas influenced by migration are carried out and various dimensions of immigration studies are shown.

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Migration and Adaptation


1 Introduction

The physical displacement of an individual from his/her own environment to another is defined as migration. Migration takes place with the aim of maintaining an individual’s life or attaining better living conditions. As a phenomenon of social mobility, migration occurs due to natural disasters, religion, poverty, wars, conflicts, etc. Migration can be divided into two groups: internal and external migration, and can be classified as primitive, compulsory, free, mass, and directed migration (Çakır, 2011). Migration may be voluntary or compulsory, temporary or permanent (Tuzcu and Bademli 2014). Bhugra (2004) described migration in three stages. In the first stage of immigration, individuals decide to migrate and plan the movement in accordance with this decision and determine financial, legal and political resources. The second stage involves the migration process and the physical transition from one place to another; all necessary psychological and social steps are initiated at this stage. The third and last stage covers all the post-migration events. Individuals focus on engaging in the new social and cultural framework, learning new roles in the new environment, and trying to adapt. The results of this phase are important because they affect the individual in the physical, spiritual, social, and cultural context.

Migration affects the society in general and the individual in particular regardless of the reasons and the type of migration. A very important social phenomenon throughout history, it directly or indirectly changes social, cultural, economic and political values of the society (Kaypak...

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