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Immigration Policy Studies

Theoretical and Empirical Migration Researches

Edited By Ufuk Bingöl

The migration movement, which has taken place since the beginning of the story of mankind, increasingly continues voluntarily or compulsorily for various reasons such as social challenges, technological revolutions and wars. Due to migration, many new questions emerge depending on these issues. Researchers from many different disciplines are looking for answers to these questions arising from migration movements. This book covers deep researches from different perspectives and disciplines upon migration by successful and expert researchers in their field. In this book, different and rigorous analyses of all areas influenced by migration are carried out and various dimensions of immigration studies are shown.

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Immigrants and Health

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1 Introduction

When Europe’s history of migration is examined, it is distinguished to a large extent by migration from Europe until 1945. After the economic boom following the end of the colonial period and the Second World War, the situation in Western Europe rapidly changed (Fassmann and Munz, 1992: 458). According to Hansen (2003), migration movements, especially after 1945, are divided into three periods. The labor force (labor emigration) migration movements which occurred between 1945–1970 formed the first period, the migration movements created by family unification at the end of the 1970s and 1980s formed the second period, and the refugee movements after 1980, increasing particularly in 1989, formed the last period. In this context, changing migration processes have led to different immigration policies in Europe in different periods. The aim of forming an immigration policy is to develop a range of measures that meet the potential targets of economic policy. As differences are not homogeneous, immigration policies vary (Chorny et al., 2007). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health policies and strategies that govern health outcomes have failed to keep up with the pace and range of modern migration and displacement at both the global and national level (WHO, 2017). The term “refugee crisis”, which surfaced especially in 2015, has been dominant in the public discourse and has greatly influenced the political landscape in both Europe and at the national level. In parallel with these immediate responses from the public, most of the...

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