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The Historical Distinctiveness of Central Europe

A Study in the Philosophy of History

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Krzysztof Brzechczyn

The aim of this book is to explain economic dualism in the history of modern Europe. The emergence of the manorial-serf economy in the Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary in the 16th and the 17th centuries was the result of a cumulative impact of various circumstantial factors. The weakness of cities in Central Europe disturbed the social balance – so characteristic for Western-European societies – between burghers and the nobility. The political dominance of the nobility hampered the development of cities and limited the influence of burghers, paving the way to the rise of serfdom and manorial farms. These processes were accompanied by increased demand for agricultural products in Western Europe

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Subject Index

Subject Index

A

adaptive mechanism 205208

aggressiveness (aggression) 25, 176, 182, 183, 184, 195197

alienation of labor 208210, 212, 214, 216, 217, 227, 228, 232235, 239255, 257, 268, 269, 271, 275277, 281, 282, 284, 286, 289, 293, 303, 304, 311, 315318

approximation 100, 116, 119, 125, 127, 131, 135, 136, 147149, 194, 214, 256, 312, 323, 325

assumptions

– aggregating 103, 104, 132, 135

– counter-factual 99, 103, 114

– idealizing 99102, 104, 114, 116, 117, 127, 131, 133, 135, 161, 178, 181, 209, 210, 239, 249

– in general 9193, 98103, 114, 116118, 120, 121, 124, 126129, 131136, 161, 178, 181, 194, 195, 197, 209, 210, 239, 249, 325

– quasi-idealizing 103105, 117, 121, 132, 135

– realistic 99, 114, 116, 117, 131

– simplifying 92, 93, 100, 103, 104, 113, 117, 120, 121, 129, 131, 132, 135, 194, 195

– stabilizing 103, 105, 117, 132, 135, 325

C

Capitalism 22, 25, 57, 60, 61, 63, 65, 74, 77, 131, 198, 205, 318320, 332

cascade effect 8, 145, 147, 151167, 255, 257, 267, 269, 284, 285, 317, 323

cascade process 79, 147, 151168, 255, 257, 267, 269, 285287, 289, 297, 306, 307, 311, 314, 317, 323325

categorial ontology 159161, 164

Central Europe

– borders 5, 41, 5254

– distinctiveness 5, 6, 4152, 5455, 57

– in general 5, 7, 8, 9, 4155

Chaos theory 35, 136138

Christian model of man 8, 209, 219, 223, 224

civil alienation 176, 177180, 182, 183, 225, 226, 341343

civilization 23, 2527, 38, 42, 50, 57, 259, 329

civilizational dimensions 329331

comparative method 107114

concretization 84, 93, 99102, 104, 105, 114, 116, 120, 127, 135, 147149, 181, 205

D

Differentiation 69, 42, 54, 61, 63, 69, 80, 85, 144, 178, 268, 269, 285287, 297, 306, 307, 309, 311, 314, 316, 318, 323325

ducal law (Ius Ducale) 260267, 276, 277, 287, 300, 307

E

East-Central Europe 4850, 53

economic dualism 8, 57, 166, 167

economical society, development of 208214, 231235

– the phase of the increasing alienation of labor 210, 232, 234

←389 | 390→

– the phase of revolutionary disturbances 210, 211, 232, 233, 234

– the phase of evolution in ownership relations 211, 233, 234

essential structure 7, 9598, 103, 105, 106, 110, 112, 113, 147154, 157162, 165, 166

F

Fatalism 23, 143

feudal society, model of 214219

feudalism 22, 25, 54, 60, 6567, 70, 74, 75, 77, 129, 198, 205, 213, 256, 259, 260, 261, 264266, 269, 276, 325

G

German Law 58, 67, 77, 79, 86, 256, 269, 271274, 288, 300, 303, 307, 317, 323

H

historical narrative 8, 20, 138, 145, 154, 157, 158, 159, 166

historical region 41

I

Idealization, method of 84, 91, 93, 94, 99, 105, 114116, 120, 136, 139, 156, 213, 246, 336

idealizational law 92, 99102, 147149

idealizational statement 99, 136

idealizational theory of science (ITS)

– in general 7, 8, 94, 101103, 109, 138, 144, 145, 148, 157, 159, 323, 324

– linear structure 101, 120

– range 98, 105, 106

– scope 98, 105

– specification (territorial and chronological) 9, 105, 106, 128, 131, 135, 325

– star-like structure 101, 135

Idiographism 32, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166

M

manorial-serf economy 6, 8, 4951, 54, 69, 72, 73, 75, 76, 78, 84, 85, 126, 257, 267, 268, 283, 287, 293, 296, 303, 305, 314, 316, 317, 321, 323, 324

manorial-serf system 54, 55, 57, 62, 74, 77, 8385, 120, 121, 122, 126, 163, 218, 315, 318

measurement 103

metanarrative 20, 30, 3133, 38, 39

N

Nomothetism 32, 164, 165

non-Marxian historical materialism (n-Mhm) 8, 27, 171184, 197, 205259, 263, 268, 323, 329348

non-rationalistic model of man (non-Christian model of man) 8, 205, 209, 219, 222225, 228, 340, 346

O

Operationalization 102, 103, 115, 136

political society, development of 175184

– the phase of growing civil alienation 179, 182, 190, 194

– the phase of revolution of the first kind 178, 179, 182, 183, 190, 191, 194, 225, 346

– the phase of cyclical declassations 180, 182, 183, 190, 194

←390 | 391→

– the phase of enslavement 179, 180, 182, 183, 190, 192, 194, 341, 347

– the phase of cyclical revolutions of the second kind 180181, 183, 190

P

Possibilism 142, 143

R

revolution

– economical of the first kind 8, 208210, 228, 229, 231, 232, 234, 240245, 248, 251, 252

– economical of the second kind 8, 227234, 240, 241, 244, 247, 248, 251, 252

– in general 27, 39, 67, 72, 114, 197, 201, 229231, 339347

– political of the first kind 177179, 182, 183, 191, 194, 197

– political of the second kind 178, 180183, 194, 225

S

shortage of manpower (workforce) 9, 67, 69, 76, 8587, 118, 248252, 254256, 267, 269, 274, 276, 277, 283287, 293, 300, 303, 307, 312, 313, 317, 323325

slavery 22, 55, 62, 67, 70, 72, 75, 77, 205, 213, 217, 264

social practice 140, 141, 330333, 335338

socialism 8, 22, 25, 43, 194, 197, 198, 204, 320, 333

substantial philosophy of history

– dualistic 22

– finalistic and non-teleological 34

– finalistic-teleological 34

– in general 6, 1922, 33, 36, 37

– non-finalistic and non-teleological 34, 35

– non-finalistic and teleological 34, 35

– pluralistic 22

– universalistic 22

surplus of manpower (workforce) 9, 239, 243245, 323, 325

T

types of societies in non-Marxian historical materialism 171175

V

Voluntarism 143

W

world-capitalist system 60, 63

←391 | 392→