Research of Polish Archaeologists in Saqqara
The book presents the discoveries made by the Polish archaeological mission in Saqqara, the central part of the largest ancient Egyptian royal necropolis. The area adjacent to the Pyramid of King Djoser on the monument’s west side, so far neglected by archaeologists, turned out to be an important burial place of the Egyptian nobility from two periods of Pharaonic history: the Old Kingdom (the late third millennium BC) and the Ptolemaic Period (the late first millennium BC). The earlier, lower cemetery yielded rock-hewn tombs with splendid wall decoration in relief and painting. The book also describes methods of conservation applied to the discovered artefacts and episodes from the mission’s life.
List of figures
Fig. 6. Polish-French excavations in Edfu (1937–1939). Professor Kazimierz Michałowski, director of the mission, with the French Egyptologist Jean Sainte Fare Garnot and Polish historian Jerzy Manteuffel next to Tell Edfu Hill.←454 | 455→
Fig. 22. Marea. An ostracon with a text in Greek concerning the pay of labourers who worked on the construction of the basilica (probably the fifth to the sixth centuries AD), before and after conservation.
Fig. 25. Deir el-Bahari (Western Thebes). A complex of temples including the terraced temple of the female pharaoh Hatshepsut (in the foreground) and the ruins of the Temple of Thothmes III (adjacent to the latter).←455 | 456→ ←456 | 457→
Fig. 61. Profile of the stone foundations below the recessed wall encircling the temenos of Djoser’s pyramid, with the remains of a monumental earlier building (Second Dynasty?), on top of which this wall was founded.←457 | 458→ ←458 | 459→ ←459 | 460→ ←460 | 461→
Fig. 153. Fragment of the procession of offering bearers in the bottom register of scenes on the north wall of Temi’s chapel (Figs. 93–94): individual labelled as Mereri, in the inscription added later using red paint.
Fig. 154. Another person from this procession, an individual named Nefer. His name written using the bas relief technique contrasts with the palaeography of his companions’ names, hieroglyphs carved in sunken relief.
Fig. 155. Obscene stylisation of a hieroglyph in the inscription carved onto the ‘false door’ by an apprentice stoneworker: the representation of a sled (the sign tem) shaped as a phallus (the sign met).←461 | 462→
Fig. 190. View of the same spot after the excavation campaign: entrance to an Old Kingdom tomb in the façade of the ‘Dry Moat,’ in the foreground – burials in terracotta coffins from the Ptolemaic period (Upper Necropolis).←462 | 463→
Fig. 205. Last day of a two-month excavation campaign. All that was left to do was a commemorative picture with Rais Said Kereti (second from the left) and the best workers; we will meet again the following year (insh Allah = Allah willing). From the left: Egyptian guard of the excavation area and Fabian Welc, Beata Błaszczuk, Małgorzata Radomska, Teresa Żurkowska, Marek Woźniak, Iwona Ciszewska-Woźniak, Zbigniew Godziejewski, Magdalena Abramowska, Iwona Kozieradzka-Ogunmakin, Teodozja I. Rzeuska, Kamil O. Kuraszkiewicz, Agnieszka Kowalska, Egyptian workers, Wojciech Wojciechowski. In the middle of the group: Karol Myśliwiec and Egyptian Egyptologist, inspector and devoted friend of the mission, Ali El-Batal (in glasses).←463 | 464→