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Polish State Railways as a Mode of Transport for Troops of the Warsaw Pact

Technology in Service of a Doctrine

Series:

Zbigniew Tucholski

The subject of the book is the history of the planned use of Polish railway infrastructure during the Cold War as part of the strategic plans of the Warsaw Pact. Analysing both technical and operational issues related to railway military transportation in a historical perspective, the author presents the history of the military transportation service of the Polish Army and provides a detailed characteristics of the organizational structure, equipment and tasks of the military transportation units and railway troops. The book also deals with rail transports of the Soviet Army on the Polish State Railways. The work is not only the result of archival queries and interviews with retired officers of the military transportation service but also field research of railway infrastructure.

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←422 | 423→

INDEX

A

Agreement Regarding Polish-Soviet Direct Railway Communication 279

air bombing of railway tracks 204

Air Force Command 287, 290, 304

American Civil War 13

Andreev, A.    32

anti-aircraft defence 7274, 79, 251253

– air raid alert signalling system 252

– armaments 251252

– diagram of 253

– permanent state of 251

– purpose of 251

– small-calibre anti-aircraft artillery batteries 252

anti-aircraft wagon 264

Antipenko, N.    34, 36, 38, 39, 87

anti-tank defence 253254

– armaments 253

– instructions 253254

– preparations for 253254

arched stone and concrete bridges 203

Artemenko, N.    34

Ataman, Jan 321

Austrian railway policy 18

Austro-Hungarian border 15

B

BARIERA 70 military exercise 234235

BARIERA 79 military exercise 112113, 236243

Bloch, Jan 17, 412

Board IV of Headquarters of Military Transport 58

Bordziłowski, Jerzy 233

Borisov, N.    29, 33, 38, 39

Borowiecki, Jan 73

Branch IV of Headquarters of Military Transport 5657, 65, 69

bridge destruction 187, 188, 198203

– arched stone and concrete bridges 203

– brief description of 198199

– damming in military terminology 200

– delayed-action mining 203204

– delayed explosion time 204

– explosives 200201

– fixed mine devices 202203

– reinforced concrete bridges 201

– special-purpose mining appliances 203

– steel bridges 202

– stone (arched) bridges 201

– timber cribs 200

– wooden bridges 200202

Bridge Reconstruction Train 114, 139, 153, 175176, 177

broad-gauge sidings 37, 115, 119120, 122123, 128, 135, 125126, 135

broad-gauge stations 126

broad-gauge steam locomotive 46, 128

broad-gauge tracks 118119, 121125, 127, 129130

broad-gauge Ty23 locomotives 123, 136

Brych, Jerzy 12, 102

Brygiewicz, K.    334

←423 | 424→

C

carriages 19, 51, 159161, 163165, 176, 184, 258259, 267, 279280, 282, 284285, 295, 320, 325326, 330331, 387388, 391

Cegielski, H.    51

Centre for Ballistic Research 79

Chrzanowski, Henryk 327

circuit track system 291

Civil Defence facilities 61

coal wagons 31, 154, 250251, 258, 259, 263, 267, 339, 386

Coastal Operational Directions 10, 23, 84

Command of the Polish Air Defence Forces 290

commercial ramps 269, 273

compound locks 212

Czerwiakow, Herman 58

D

damming in military terminology 200

delayed-action mining 203204

delayed explosion time 204

Department of Military transport, Military District Command I Warsaw 6466

Department of Military Transport of the Russian General Staff 14

Devil’s Loop 27

diesel locomotives of WLs 40/50 type 308312

double locks 212

dual-gauge track layout 123124

dual-gauge track system 117, 135

Dzerzhinsky, Felix 20

E

Eberman, Ludwik 336

Eisenbahnen über die Oder-Neiße-Grenze (Kuhlmann) 12

electrified railways lines 5153

electromechanical (sliding) VES type signalling devices 22

engineering-miner trains 185, 189

evacuation transfers 245

F

Field Artillery Research Centre in Zielonka 314325

– 5th Railway Troops Batallion 315

– 7th Railway Troops Batallion 315

– Internal Transport and Railway Section 321

– main and peripheral lines 316317

– maintenance facilities 315316

– non-public railway 324

– Ordnance Research Centre 321, 322

– permanent loading ramps and platforms 317318

– temporary wooden bridges 317

– train announcements 322

– training area 316, 319

– train traffic 319

field railway equipment storage depot 174175

5th railway troops battalion 6974, 7880, 318

1st Belarussian Front 2830, 3235, 3739, 43, 47

1st Guardian Railway Brigade 29, 34

First World War 1718, 19, 209, 210, 216, 217, 218, 339, 340, 350

fixed mine devices 202203

fixed ramps 72, 273

fixed wagon furnishings 256, 259

folding railway bridges 217232, 410

– carriageway of bridge sleepers 225226

←424 | 425→

– economic and military importance of railways 217

Exposition Universelle 217

– K-type bridges 220221

– L-30 span diagram 223, 225

– L-36 span diagram 224, 225, 226

– military point of view 217

– military-purpose 226227

– NZM-56, 231

– Polish Armed Forces troops 222

– pushers 231

– railway troops 221

– riverbank spans 232

– Roth-Waagner bridges 218

– Roth-Waagner spans 218219

– S49 rails 228229

– SEK-500 overpass 227228, 230

– SRK-30/40 folding crane 230

– standard-gauge railway bridges 218219

– in Warsaw Pact 227

4th Ukrainian Front territory 27

Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 13, 184, 350

freight wagons 51, 178, 230, 256, 258-259, 295, 331333, 325326, 340, 386, 391

French-Polish Consortium 333

French-Polish Railway Society 19

frontal railway lines 18

Frontline Board for Military Transports 44

frontline-bound railway lines 115, 150

frontline offensive campaign military transport 142158

– anticipated nuclear attack 145

– front railway lines 145146

– labour-intensive nature of reconstruction works 151

– mechanisation of tactical compounds 158

– operational continuity 142, 144

– operational transport diagram 150

– organisational structure 174179

– Permanent Transhipment Areas 150152

– planning of 152, 158

– radio communication 144

– rolling stock decommissioning points 147149

– Soviet Army and Polish Armed Forces troops 149

– strategic bridge component reserve list 153154

– structure of transport network 143

– Substitute Transhipment Areas 151

– technical solution diagram for railway junction 146

– Temporary Transhipment Areas 150152

– wagon side wall removal facilities list 155156

– Warsaw Military District of the Bureau of Military Transport 150

– zones of frontline railway network 157

frontline railways operability 174

fuel re-pumping point sidings 356357

G

Gaponiuk, Anatol 56

Gembora, Marian 11, 383

German railway troops 41

Godek, Włodzimierz 78

Grubecki, Jan 26, 49

H

hazardous goods transport 247, 249, 250

Head of Frontline Transport 62, 63

←425 | 426→

Headquarters of Military Transport (1944–1962)

– Board IV of 58

– Branch IV of 5657, 65, 69

– Chief Quartermaster of the Polish Armed Forces 11, 56, 63

– of General Staff 58

– of General Staff of Polish Armed Forces 10, 63, 69, 75, 76, 355, 357, 388390

– line units of railway and inland 59

– for liquidation 291

– Military District Command I Warsaw 6466

– military offices 254

– military railway sidings in Warsaw 296300

– military-technical description of rail links 9093

– Ministry of National Defence 246, 255, 325

– order and commission 291

– peacetime activities of 6364

– planning of training and dispatching of railway troops 58

– raiway unit reconstructions 6681

– Regional State Railway Management 55, 59, 60, 65, 74, 119, 359

– siding and siding-related facilities 289

– special rolling stock 386387

– during wartime 61

Heads of Traffic and Trade Departments 271

heavy-duty railway flat wagons 276

Herbst, Stanisław 11

Hrubieszów narrow-gauge railway 314

hydrographic properties 107

I

improvised frontal double ramp 274

improvised frontal single ramp 275

improvised parallel ramp 269, 273, 275, 279

improvised ramps 269, 273

improvised side oblique ramps 273

improvised side perpendicular ramp 276, 277

Independent Squadron of Anti-Aircraft Defence of Military Transports 72, 73, 74, 78, 79

Instructions Concerning the Organisation and Delivery of Military Railway Transports 248, 258

internal railway systems 291

Iznyarov, A.    37

J

Jaśman, Aleksander 65

Jarzyna, J.    103107, 113, 239, 240

Jaskulski, K.    334

K

Kaganovich, L.    32

key locks 124, 211212

Komunikacje i wojna (Nowak) 12

Korczyc, Władysław 58, 67

Kostap transfer rules 249, 255

Kotow, A.    30

Kovalev, I.    32

Krawiec, Edmund 71

K-type bridges 220221

Kuhlmann, A.    12

Kuźmienko, Grzegorz 56

L

L-30 span diagram 223, 225

L-36 span diagram 224, 225, 226

labour-intensive nature of reconstruction works 151

←426 | 427→

Leciak, Zygmunt 76

Lesnikov, A.    39

Lewiński, Piotr 233

loading areas, stations, and sites, military transports 268279

– commercial ramps 273

– definition of 270

– fixed ramps 273

– heavy-duty railway flat wagons 276

– improvised frontal double ramp 274

– improvised frontal single ramp 275

– improvised parallel ramp 275

– improvised side perpendicular ramp 276, 277

– loading yards 272

– military ramps 269

– mobile ramps 274

– Ppwwp ramp flat wagon 278

– primary loading areas 270

– process of selecting and organising 270

– provisional makeshift ramps 273

– special bogie flat wagons 276

– steel ramps and resources 278279

– supplementary loading areas 270

– z-type portable ramps 276

locomotives

– in military rolling stock 361386

Ls40 type 363369

Ls150 type 371377

Ls300 type 378382

– narrow-gauge 342343, 348, 352

– in post-war period 361362

– servicing point 122123

– steam 186187, 195, 196

– and trolleys 328330

– Tw1-98, 74

Ls40 type locomotives

– military 367369

– technical characteristics 363366

Ls150 type locomotive

– military 374377

– technical data of 371374

Ls300 type locomotive

– military 382

– technical data of 378381

Lublin Regional State Railway Management 12, 31

M

Macewicz, Eugeniusz 42

Mackiewicz, Eugeniusz 400

Manual of Railway Damage Reconstruction 187, 199, 204, 207, 209, 210, 213

Mazur, Jan 321

Mława narrow-gauge railway 324, 357361

mechanical railway signalling devices 116

Mechanised Permanent-Way Train 176, 177

Mierosławski, Ludwik 183

Mikoyan, A.    32

Military Academy of Rear and Transport Services 68

Military Agitation Points 59

Military Command of Railway Section 61

Military Commands of Frontline and Army Distribution Stations 61

Military Commands of Railway Sections 61

Military Commands of Supply Stations 61

Military Commands of Waterway Sections and Ports 59

Military Commission of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee ←427 | 428→of the Polish United Workers Party 67

Military District Command I Warsaw 6466

Military District Commands 55, 58, 59, 64

Military Food Points 59

Military Frontline Transport Board 61

Military Institute of Armament Technology 325, 327, 328, 385

military journals 11

Military Office of Historical Research Archive 11

military rail transfers 245, 248

military rail transports

– block trains usage 247

– classification of 245

– definition of 245

– deliveries of 248

– deployment locations 251

– extraordinary precautions 250

– general transport rules 248249

– hazardous goods transport 247, 249250

– intermediate stations 251

Kostap transfer rules 249

– military troop trains 247248, 267

– non-scheduled trains 248

– scheduled trains 248

– typical and specific properties 246

Military Railway Section Commands 59

military railway sidings

– assumptions 293

– categorisation 290

– definition of sidings 288

– direct management 288

– general supervision 288

– grouping by construction period 287

– Head of Military Transport in Warsaw 296300

– internal railway systems 291

– locally operated switches 295

– No.143 Military Unit 3748 292

– No.145 Military Unit 2186 Hajnówka 294

– No.289 Hrubieszów 314

– railways operated by military units 289290

– registration of 289

– sample standard 292

– Silesian Military District 300302

– users of military railways 288

Military Railways Management 176177, 179, 183

Military Railway Transports

– instructions regarding 269

– temporary instructions regarding 269

military ramps 61, 269, 271, 273

military rolling stock

– locomotives 361386

Ls40 type 363369

Ls150 type 371377

Ls300 type 378382

– management 388398

central organ supplying military units 389

marking and numbering scheme of 391, 392398

Military transport Units of military districts 388

registration numbers 391392

Rolling Stock Repair Plant 389390

scrapping of locomotives and special wagons 390

– narrow-gauge military tank wagons 402408

– road trailers for wagon transport 398401

– special rolling stock 386388

– wagons 386388

←428 | 429→

Military Service of Accommodation and Construction 289

Military Stage Points 59

Military Station Commands 59

Military Training Grounds 339

Military Transfer Command 289

military transfers 245

Military Transhipment Base 117, 118

Military Transhipment Base Mamonovo II of the USSR, 121

Military Transport Board 272

Military Transport Board of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces 289, 291

Military Transport Commands 289

– evidence lists of tracks and junctions 138

– main tasks of 60

– repair and maintenance of all tracks, equipment and facilities 136

– responsibilities of 60

military transports

– anti-aircraft defence 251253

air raid alert signalling system 252

armaments 251252

diagram of 253

permanent state of 251

purpose of 251

small-calibre anti-aircraft artillery batteries 252

– anti-tank defence 253254

armaments 253

instructions 253254

preparations for 253254

– authorities 289

– as communication system 9

– definitions of 9

– Division IV of 362, 363

– field bodies 61

– field (frontline) services 62

– loading areas, stations, and sites 268279

commercial ramps 273

definition of 270

fixed ramps 273

heavy-duty railway flat wagons 276

improvised frontal double ramp 274

improvised frontal single ramp 275

improvised parallel ramp 275

improvised side perpendicular ramp 276, 277

loading yards 272

military ramps 269

mobile ramps 274

Ppwwp ramp flat wagon 278

primary and supplementary loading areas 270

process of selecting and organising 270

provisional makeshift ramps 273

special bogie flat wagons 276

steel ramps and resources 278279

z-type portable ramps 276

– ordinances and documentation 254

– rolling stock usage 255268

anti-aircraft wagon 264

covered vans and coal wagons 259

field kitchens transported in van 266

fixed wagon furnishings 256

furnished box van 257, 258

furnishing of Kl vans 265

Kl vans with lying and sitting places 261263

loading diagram and use of loading devices 268

←429 | 430→

mobile furnishings 256

people-carrying wagons 261

Polish State Railways 258259

special-purpose standard mobile wagon components 255

special-purpose storage depots 259

troops-carrying goods vans 256

– rules for trains 267

– safeguarding confidentiality of 254255

– Soviet Army troops in Poland 283286

financial settlements 286

military troop trains 285

scheduled passenger train 284

– Soviet Army troops in Polish State Railways 279283

border crossing stations 281

military train traffic 280

re-forming of train sets 280

routes in transit 281282

train crews 280

transit trains 280

USSR block trains 281

USSR Ministry of Transport 282, 283

Military Transport Unit of the 1st Army of the Polish Armed Forces 383

military troop trains 72, 118, 122, 125, 137, 144, 171, 176, 234, 247, 248, 250-251, 267, 270, 283, 284, 285

Milutin, Dimitri 14

Miners' Manual 184, 198

mining bridges 203204

Minister of National Defence 57, 58, 66, 67, 73, 77, 388390

Ministry of Communication Central Traction Administration 389

Ministry of Defence Central Archives 11

Ministry of Military Affairs 185, 199, 213, 335, 362

Ministry of National Defence 60, 6364, 68, 71, 136, 340, 384385

– 3rd railway troops battalion 7377

– 5th railway troops battalion 7073

– 7th railway troops battalion 7781

– definition of military railways 287288

Komunikacja Wojskowa handbook 85

– military railways 290

– narrow-gauge military tank wagons 402408

Sappers’ Manual - Explosives and Destruction 189

Ministry of Railways and Inland Navigation 62, 63

Ministry of Transport

– guidelines 254

Manual of Railway Damage Reconstruction 187, 199, 203, 207, 209, 213

– at service units of 254

Technical Specifications for the Design and Construction or Reconstruction of Temporary Railway Infrastructure 207

Miridonov, V.    37

Mińsk Mazowiecki – Pilawa line 29

mobile furnishings 256

mobile ramps 274

mobilisation-related transfers 245

Mochnacki, Stanisław 64

Muzyczek, Adam 64

←430 | 431→

N

narrow-gauge diesel locomotive WLs150-3800, 326

narrow-gauge locomotives 338, 342343, 348, 352

narrow-gauge military railways

– description of 302303

– diesel locomotives of WLs 40/50 type 308312

– Field Artillery Research Centre in Zielonka 314325

5th Railway Troops Batallion 315

7th Railway Troops Batallion 315

Internal Transport and Railway Section 321

main and peripheral lines 316317

maintenance facilities 315316

non-public railway 324

Ordnance Research Centre 321, 322

permanent loading ramps and platforms 317318

temporary wooden bridges 317

train announcements 322

training area 316, 319

train traffic 319

– fuel re-pumping point siding 356357

– JW 1540 Nowe Miasto (No. 181)    356357

– Piaseczno No. 101/183 356357

– post-war period 302308, 314, 351, 361362, 387, 400

– rolling stock 325333

carriages 330331

freight wagons 331333

locomotives and trolleys 328330

– S64L type engine characteristics 313

– S-324 HL type engine characteristics 313314

– 600mm railway

Gdynia-Port Wojenny Oksywie (No. 581)    346350

on Hel peninsula 333346

JW 3643 Gdynia Port-Oksywie (No. 407)    346350

JW 4420 No. 180 357361

Świnoujście (No. 881)    350354

– standard-gauge siding No. 127 314325

– in Zegrze Pomorskie 356357

narrow-gauge military tank wagons 402408

Narrow-gauge Railway Management Commission 323

narrow-gauge rolling stock 337, 347, 349350

narrow-gauge wagons 340, 343345

Natalevich, A.    37

National Air Defence 388

National Defence Committee 246

Navy and Land Forces 388

Navy railway artillery battalion 67, 70

non-scheduled trains 248

North Military Group of the Soviet Army 283, 285

Nowak, Eugeniusz 12

NZM-56 bridge 98101, 112, 113, 231, 232

O

Object-83, 112

Odbudowa mostów kolejowych, Stalowe konstrukcje składane, (Reconstruction of Railway bridges - Folding Structures), Part I, Warsaw 1966, Part II, Warsaw 1968 11

Officers’ Military Engineering Academy 68, 73, 78, 100

Ogarkov, V.    37

Ogoyev, I.    27

←431 | 432→

operational transfers 18, 245

operational transport diagram 150

operational transports

– carriage of 247

– confidentiality 255

– peacetime 246

– wartime plans 246

Operation Berlin 3839

Operation ‘Coal’, 30–31

Operation Otto 2122

Ordnance Research Centre 321, 322, 326, 328

organisational structure, military transport on frontline 174179

– Bridge Reconstruction Train 177

– field railway equipment storage depot 175

– frontline railways operability 174

– Mechanised Permanent-Way Train 177

– military command 176

– railway frontline dispatching station 175

– Railway Traffic and Communication Appliance Reconstruction Train 177178

– railway troop brigades 175

– steam locomotive columns 178

– Steam Locomotives Repair Train 178

– Track Reconstruction Train 177

– Wagon Repair Train 178

– Water Facility Reconstruction Train 178

Osokin, Sergiusz 56

Ołtarzewski, Stefan 64

P

peacetime operational transports 246

permanent railway bridges

– on Lausitzer Neiße – Odra – DŸwina line 108110

– on River Vistula 9597

Permanent Transhipment Areas 116119, 122

– in Bartoszyce 121

– Braniewo 121

– in Dorohusk 133

– at Medyka 134136

– in Narewka 125, 127

– Regional State Railway Management 122, 132133

– Skandawa 118119

– Terespol 127, 128, 130, 131132

– Werchrata 134

– at Zubki Białostockie 123124

Piszczyk, Antoni 78

Poland, Soviet Army troops 283286

– financial settlements 286

– military troop trains 285

– scheduled passenger train 284

Polish Committee of National Liberation 26, 30, 49, 50

Polish-German state border 98

Polish Military Transhipment Areas 284

Polish railway network 10, 23, 26, 83, 410411

Polish-Soviet Railway Agreement 279

Polish State Railways

– 12th railway regiment 101

– 1950s slogan of 23

– auxiliary work purposes 137

– BARIERA 79 112113

– bridge destruction 198203

arched stone and concrete bridges 203

brief description of 198199

damming in military terminology 200

delayed-action mining 203204

←432 | 433→

delayed explosion time 204

explosives 200201

fixed mine devices 202203

reinforced concrete bridges 201

special-purpose mining appliances 203

steel bridges 202

stone (arched) bridges 201

timber cribs 200

wooden bridges 200202

– broad-gauge marshalling yard 128

– broad-gauge siding 122123, 125126

– broad-gauge stations 126

– broad-gauge tracks 124125

– broad-gauge Ty23 locomotives 136

– destruction-caused interruptions 86

– dual-gauge track layout 123124

– East-to-West strategic transit network 8889

– electrified railways lines 5153

– evacuation of wounded 159183

hospital trains 159, 161, 163

military ambulance purpose carriage 161162

military shuttle trains 165

passenger carriage 160

Permanent Military Hospital Trains 163164

Rolling Stock Repair Plant 159160

Temporary Military Hospital Trains 163166

wartime destruction to staff carriages 163

– folding railway bridges 217232

carriageway of bridge sleepers 225226

economic and military importance of railways 217

Exposition Universelle 217

K-type bridges 220221

L-30 span diagram 223, 225

L-36 span diagram 224, 225, 226

military point of view 217

military-purpose 226227

NZM-56, 231

Polish Armed Forces troops 222

pushers 231

railway troops 221

riverbank spans 232

Roth-Waagner bridges 218

Roth-Waagner spans 218219

S49 rails 228229

SEK-500 overpass 227228, 230

SRK-30/40 folding crane 230

standard-gauge railway bridges 218219

in Warsaw Pact 227

– frontline-bound railway lines 115

– frontline offensive campaign military transport 142158

anticipated nuclear attack 145

front railway lines 145146

labour-intensive nature of reconstruction works 151

mechanisation of tactical compounds 158

operational continuity 142, 144

operational transport diagram 150

organisational structure 174179

Permanent Transhipment Areas 150152

planning of 152, 158

radio communication 144

rolling stock decommissioning points 147149

Soviet Army and Polish Armed Forces troops 149

strategic bridge component reserve list 153154

←433 | 434→

structure of transport network 143

Substitute Transhipment Areas 151

technical solution diagram for railway junction 146

Temporary Transhipment Areas 150152

wagon side wall removal facilities list 155156

Warsaw Military District of the Bureau of Military Transport 150

zones of frontline railway network 157

– hydrographic properties 107

– infrastructure 115

– inventory numbers 355

Komunikacja Wojskowa handbook 85

– Kostrzyn – Küstrin Kietz section 111

– locomotive servicing point 122123

– mechanical railway signalling devices 116

– Mechanical Services Division 259260

– military loading locations 271272

– mining bridges 203204

– Ministry of Communication Central Traction Administration 389

– mobilisation plans 139

– mobility and continuity of transport 86

– modernisation works 119121

– narrow-gauge lines 43

– network 9, 10, 136, 139, 279

– nuclear war conditions 87

– NZM-56 bridge 98101, 112, 113

– Object-83, 112

– organisational structure, military transport on frontline 174179

Bridge Reconstruction Train 177

field railway equipment storage depot 175

frontline railways operability 174

Mechanised Permanent-Way Train 177

military command 176

railway frontline dispatching station 175

Railway Traffic and Communication Appliance Reconstruction Train 177178

railway troop brigades 175

steam locomotive columns 178

Steam Locomotives Repair Train 178

Track Reconstruction Train 177

Wagon Repair Train 178

Water Facility Reconstruction Train 178

– permanent railway bridges

on Lausitzer Neiße Odra – DŸwina line 108110

on River Vistula 9597

– Permanent Transhipment Areas 116119, 122

in Bartoszyce 121

Braniewo 121

in Dorohusk 133

at Medyka 134136

in Narewka 125, 127

Regional State Railway Management 122, 132133

Skandawa 118119

Terespol 127, 128, 130, 131132

Werchrata 134

at Zubki Białostockie 123124

– prevalent theory 86

– railway bridge crossings 232243

←434 | 435→

2nd railway regiment 232233

BARIERA 70 military exercise 234235

BARIERA 79 military exercise 236243

high-water temporary bridge on River Nogat in Malbork 235236

NZM-56 bridge construction 232

railway bridge construction in Małkinia 235

– railway lines, stations, facilities and rolling stock destruction 183204

arrival switches 186

brick water tower 194

cutting rails with explosives 191

damage type 187

description of 184

destroying of railway station devices and rolling stock 191

engineering-miner trains 185

fundamental destruction types 187188

masked railway track damage 188

mass destruction 187188

Palatine Uprising of 1849 183184

partial destruction 187

rail traffic 188

railway tracks 185

reinforced concrete water tower 195

sequence of destruction 188189

signalling and block devices, central devices 197198

special-purpose engineering-miner trains 189

steam locomotives 186187, 195, 196

switch crossbars, destroying 192

telegraph and telephone lines 185, 197

tenders 196

turntables and water cranes, destroying 193

valves and pipes 194

wagons 186, 197

water towers 186, 193

work diagram for platoon 190

– railway signalling devices reconstruction 210213

catch points 212

complete destruction 213

compound locks 212

double locks 212

key control panels 212213

key locks 211212

maximum permitted speed 210211

railway traffic efficiency 210211

simple-version key boxes 212213

traffic control post 211

– Regional State Railway Management

Permanent Transhipment Areas 121

railway bridges 114

wartime plans 114

– REM-500 overpass bridge 100, 103, 104, 106108, 110113

– Rembertów – Zielonka rail link 94

– reserve mobilisation units 23

– reserve railway section 99

– River Odra 9798, 111113

– River Vistula 95101, 105, 106

– Soviet Army troops in 279283

border crossing stations 281

military train traffic 280

re-forming of train sets 280

routes in transit 281282

train crews 280

←435 | 436→

transit trains 280

USSR block trains 281

USSR Ministry of Transport 282, 283

– standard-gauge railway lines 117

– standard-gauge siding 123, 128, 130

– standard-gauge tracks 122, 124, 125, 127

– Substitute Transhipment Areas 117, 122

– technical protection, frontline railway network 179183

catenary support poles 182

large bridge reconstruction 181

mechanisation battalion 180

nuclear explosion 182

railway troops brigade 179180

special-purpose disinfectant solution 183

stage II railway junctions 180

stage I railway junctions 180

stationing (dislocation) sites 180

thermonuclear war 183

transport and technical battalions 180

wartime technical protection 182

– temporary bridge reconstruction 213217

openings 214

partial damage 214215

railway troops 216

steel bridges 217

temporary railway bridge span types 216

– temporary reconstruction (construction) of railway lines 204217

– air bombing of railway tracks 204

– buildings indispensable to railway traffic reconstruction 210

– destroyed frogs 206

– interim reconstruction (construction) 207209

– planned reconstruction of railway surface 207

– protective dead-end track 207

– during rail-cutting attempts 205

– railway tracks by joint or rail blasting 204205

– repair recommendations 206

– roundhouses 206

– spare switch parts 206

– warfare damage 205

– temporary road-rail crossing 101

– Temporary Transhipment Areas 115, 132133, 166174

access roads and marinas 170171

isolated railway sections 166

length of rail section 171172

longitudinal type 171

military transports and supplies 167

mixed-type 171

mobilisation plans 173174

on primary frontal direction 167, 172

regulation of military traffic 169170

section-based shuttle traffic 168

Soviet Army 166

technological process 168

transfer of goods 168

transverse 171

wartime destruction 167

– thermonuclear warfare conditions 88

– track layouts 117

– traffic posts 119121, 128130

– transfer facilities 119121

– transhipment facility 126127

VISTULA 73 exercise 103107

VISTULA 85 exercise 101, 102

←436 | 437→

– Warsaw Pact military doctrine 86

– wartime construction, folding railway bridge 111

– wartime efficiency 110111

– wartime plans 127

– wartime storage of surface materials 138

– wartime transport continuity 95

– Zazulak system interlocking boards 138

Polish State Railways Central Bureau for Foreign Clearance 282, 286

portable ramps 269, 273, 276, 285

Półturzycki, Bronisław 70

Ppwwp ramp flat wagon 278

prevalent theory 86

provisional makeshift ramps 273

provisional military ramps 269

Prussian military powers 16

Prussian Tw1 class steam locomotives 384

Przegląd Kwatermistrzowski (military journal) 11

Przyszła wojna [The Future War] (Bloch) 17, 412

pushers 231

R

Rabanowski, Jan 49

railway bridge crossings 232243

– 2nd railway regiment 232233

– BARIERA 70 military exercise 234235

– BARIERA 79 military exercise 236243

– high-water temporary bridge on River Nogat in Malbork 235236

– NZM-56 bridge construction 232

– railway bridge construction in Małkinia 235

railway lines, stations, facilities and rolling stock destruction 183204

– arrival switches 186

– brick water tower 194

– cutting rails with explosives 191

– damage type 187

– description of 184

– destroying of railway station devices and rolling stock 191

– engineering-miner trains 185

– fundamental destruction types 187188

– masked railway track damage 188

– mass destruction 187188

– Palatine Uprising of 1849 183184

– partial destruction 187

– rail traffic 188

– railway tracks 185

– reinforced concrete water tower 195

– sequence of destruction 188189

– signalling and block devices, central devices 197198

– special-purpose engineering-miner trains 189

– steam locomotives 186187, 195, 196

– switch crossbars, destroying 192

– telegraph and telephone lines 185, 197

– tenders 196

– turntables and water cranes, destroying 193

– valves and pipes 194

– wagons 186, 197

– water towers 186, 193

– work diagram for platoon 190

railway numbering 289

Railway Rolling Stock Repair facilities 6061

Railway Security Services trains 383

←437 | 438→

railway signalling devices reconstruction 210213

– catch points 212

– complete destruction 213

– compound locks 212

– double locks 212

– key control panels 212213

– key locks 211212

– maximum permitted speed 210211

– railway traffic efficiency 210211

– simple-version key boxes 212213

– traffic control post 211

Railway Traffic and Communication Appliance Reconstruction Train 176, 177178

railway troop brigades 175

Railway Works Company No.9, 134, 135

railway unit reconstructions 6681

– 3rd railway troops battalion 7377

– 5th railway troops battalion 7073

– 7th railway troops battalion 7781

– Ministry of National Defence resources 68

– non-commissioned officers 68, 69

– railway troops battalions 69

– reconstruction programme of railway troops 69

Red Army forces transport 10

Red Army military transport 2554

– broad-gauge line 31, 40

– broad-gauge steam locomotive 46

– Devil’s Loop 27

– disbanding of railway columns 48

– 1st Belarussian Front 2829, 30, 32, 35, 39

– 1st Guardian Railway Brigade 34

– 4th Ukrainian Front territory 27

– Mińsk Mazowiecki – Pilawa line 29

– operational units 26

– Operation Berlin 3839

– operation Coal 3031

– reconstruction of lines 40

– Rembertów – Wesoła 30

– River Odra 35, 37

– River Vistula 2627, 30, 3235, 38

– River Warta 36

– 2nd Belarussian Front 35, 39

– simplified servicing procedures 47

– standard-gauge line 31

– steam locomotive columns 4546

– Warsaw Brigade 34, 35, 38

– Wisła – Odra operation 43

– Zagórz – Medzilaborce line 28

Regional State Railway Management

– assembly and furnishing locations 260

– broad-gauge network of 51

– electrified railway lines of 53

– Headquarters of Military Transport 55, 59, 60, 65, 74, 119, 359

– infrastructure departments of 55

– military offices of 8990

– military-technical description of rail links 9093

– 1952–1953 railway lines and junctions 65

– Permanent Transhipment Areas 121

– railway bridges 114

– railway network 31, 60

– rolling stock decommissioning points 147149

– strategic bridge component reserve list 153154

Technical Regulations for Railway Operation 318319

←438 | 439→

– Tw1-98 locomotive 74

– wagon side wall removal facilities list 155156

– Warsaw 9093, 138140, 147149, 173174

– wartime plans of 114

Regulations Concerning the Management of Military Railways and Military Railway Rolling Stock 287

reinforced concrete bridges 201

REM-500 overpass bridge 100, 103, 104, 106108, 110113

Rembertów – Wesoła line 30

Resolution of the Council of Ministers 77, 81

resource evacuation-related transfers 245

Rgddyyhp narrow-gauge tank wagons 406408

River Bug 25, 28, 93, 114, 127, 232, 235

River Narew 25, 114, 222

River Odra 12, 35, 37, 83, 9798, 111113, 149, 222, 234, 236237

River San 76, 80, 135

River Vistula 14, 16, 25, 2627, 30, 3235, 38, 41, 43, 76, 83, 95101, 105, 106, 114, 151152, 173-174, 222, 233

River Warta 36, 80, 114

road ramps 401

Rogala, Czesław 70

Rogatko, V.    34

Rokossowski, Konstanty 57, 67, 115

rolling stock 325333

– inventory 346

– military transports 255268

anti-aircraft wagon 264

covered vans and coal wagons 259

field kitchens transported in van 266

fixed wagon furnishings 256

furnished box van 257, 258

furnishing of Kl vans 265

Kl vans with lying and sitting places 261263

loading diagram and use of loading devices 268

mobile furnishings 256

people-carrying wagons 261

Polish State Railways 258259

special-purpose standard mobile wagon components 255

special-purpose storage depots 259

troops-carrying goods vans 256

– narrow-gauge 349350

– narrow-gauge military railways 325333

carriages 330331

freight wagons 331333

locomotives and trolleys 328330

– standard-gauge 341342, 347, 348, 352

Romaniuk, Konstanty 65

Roth-Waagner bridges 218

Roth-Waagner spans 218219

Rumyantsev, P.    49

Russian military doctrine 14, 16

Russian military transports 284

Russian Ministry of War 13

Russian rail transport

– decapitalisation of 20

– pre-Revolution decline 19

– Trans-Siberian railway 15

Russian railway troops 42, 44

– token system 44

Russo-Japanese War 15

Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 14

Rybałtowski, Alfons 65

S

S49 rails 225, 228229

←439 | 440→

S64L type engine characteristics 313

S-324 HL type engine characteristics 313314

Sappers' Manual - Explosives and Destruction 189

Sappers' Manual for Use by all Types of Armed Forces 185, 199, 213

scheduled trains 248

Seaside Operational Direction 410

2nd Belarussian Front 35, 38, 39

Second World War 23, 25, 84, 86, 93, 142, 166, 203, 217, 221, 222, 339, 341, 409

SEK-500 overpass 101, 103, 227228, 230, 231, 233, 410

7th railway troops battalion 69, 72, 7781

Sikorski, Władysław 409

Silesian Military District 78, 81, 189, 300302

simple-version key boxes 212213

Siwicki, Florian 102

600mm narrow-gauge military railways

– Gdynia-Port Wojenny Oksywie (No. 581)    346350

– on Hel peninsula 333346

– JW 3643 Gdynia Port-Oksywie (No. 407)    346350

– JW 4420 No. 180 357361

– Świnoujście (No. 881)    350354

Skurtys, Stanisław 72

Smaczyński, Anatol 67

small-calibre anti-aircraft artillery batteries 252

Śmidowicz, Jan 333

Sokolov, W.    37

Soviet Army troops

– in Poland 283286

financial settlements 286

military troop trains 285

scheduled passenger train 284

– Polish State Railways 279283

border crossing stations 281

military train traffic 280

re-forming of train sets 280

routes in transit 281282

train crews 280

transit trains 280

USSR block trains 281

USSR Ministry of Transport 282, 283

Soviet art of military operations 84

special bogie flat wagons 276

special-purpose disinfectant solution 183

special-purpose engineering-miner trains 189

special rolling stock

– Headquarters of Military Transport 386387

– wagons and 386388

Spychalski, Marian 233, 388

SRK-30/40 folding crane 230

Stalin, J.    32

standard-gauge railway bridges 218219

standard-gauge railway lines 117

standard-gauge rolling stock 26, 33, 36, 115, 156, 341342, 347, 348, 352, 391

standard-gauge siding 119120, 123125, 127130, 287, 319, 324, 327, 333, 335, 351, 355356

standard-gauge siding No. 127 314325

standard-gauge tracks 117, 122, 124, 125, 127, 128, 129, 130, 133, 358

State Defence Committee 32

State Railway Managements 55, 60, 62, 84, 113, 260, 285, 288

steam locomotives 36, 4547, 51, 53, 67, 87, 88, 118, 123, 124, 130, 136, 137, 178, 183, 186187, 195, ←440 | 441→ 196, 206, 220, 250, 279282, 325, 336, 358, 362, 382387, 389

Steam Locomotives Repair Train 178

steel bridges 202, 209, 216217

steel ramps and resources 278279

stone (arched) bridges 201

Strózik, Ryszard 11

Substitute Transhipment Areas 95, 117, 122, 151

Supreme Board of Military Transports 26, 32, 44, 49, 83, 84, 281

Supreme Board of Military Transports of the Red Army at the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces 284286

Suprowicz, Mikołaj 56

Suprynowicz, Mikołaj 56

Świrski, Konstanty 66, 70, 73

T

Tarasiewicz, Aleksander 71

technical protection, frontline railway network 179183

– catenary support poles 182

– large bridge reconstruction 181

– mechanisation battalion 180

– nuclear explosion 182

– railway troops brigade 179180

– special-purpose disinfectant solution 183

– stage II railway junctions 180

– stage I railway junctions 180

– stationing (dislocation) sites 180

– thermonuclear war 183

– transport and technical battalions 180

– wartime technical protection 182

Technical Regulations for Railway Operation 318319

Technical Specifications for the Design and Construction or Reconstruction of Temporary Railway Infrastructure 207

Telegin, K.    34, 39

telegraph and telephone lines 179, 184186, 197

temporary bridge reconstruction 213217

– openings 214

– partial damage 214215

– railway troops 216

– steel bridges 217

– temporary railway bridge span types 216

temporary reconstruction (construction) of railway lines 204217

– air bombing of railway tracks 204

– buildings indispensable to railway traffic reconstruction 210

– destroyed frogs 206

– interim reconstruction (construction) 207209

– planned reconstruction of railway surface 207

– protective dead-end track 207

– during rail-cutting attempts 205

– railway tracks by joint or rail blasting 204205

– repair recommendations 206

– roundhouses 206

– spare switch parts 206

– warfare damage 205

Temporary Regulations on the Use of the Polish Railways by USSR Trains 279

temporary road-rail crossing 101, 234

Temporary Transhipment Areas 115, 132133, 166174

– access roads and marinas 170171

– isolated railway sections 166

←441 | 442→

– length of rail section 171172

– longitudinal type 171

– military transports and supplies 167

– mixed-type 171

– mobilisation plans 173174

– on primary frontal direction 167, 172

– regulation of military traffic 169170

– section-based shuttle traffic 168

– Soviet Army 166

– technological process 168

– transfer of goods 168

– transverse 171

– wartime destruction 167

Terlecki, Michał 56, 66

Territorial Defence resources 246

thermonuclear war 85, 88, 183

thermonuclear warfare conditions 88

3rd railway troops battalion 6971, 7377, 81, 384

30th Training Company of Railway Military Reserve Officers 74, 78

3Rw type tank wagon

– Koszalin station 404

– Piaseczno station 405

– technical data of 403404

timber cribs 200, 214

Tisson, W.    34

Track Reconstruction Train 114, 177

traffic posts 119121, 128130, 213

Training Curriculum for Reserve Officers of the Railway Military Forces 71, 78

transfer of supplies 245

transport and technical battalions 180

Transport Board of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces 289, 291

Trans-Siberian railway 15

Transversal Railway 18

trudfront (labour battalion) campaign 41

tsarist defensive military doctrine 88

Ty1-1085 (Freudenstein No.3/1899) steam locomotive 325

Ty1-1142 (Krauss München No.6806/1913) steam locomotive 325

type 2Rw 600mm tank wagons 360361

U

USSR block trains 280, 281

USSR Ministry of Transport 282, 283

V

valves and pipes 194

von Göben, August Karl 350

von Moltke, Helmut 13, 17

W

wagon(s) 353354

– anti-aircraft 264

– coal 259

– freight 331333, 340

– heavy-duty railway flat 276

– narrow-gauge 343345

– narrow-gauge military tank 402408

– people-carrying 261

– special bogie flat 276

– special rolling stock and 386388

– 3Rw type tank

Koszalin station 404

Piaseczno station 405

technical data of 403404

Wagon Repair Train 178

←442 | 443→

War Council of 1st Belarussian Front 32, 33, 34, 37

War Directorate for Railway Reconstruction 27, 29, 33, 37, 39

Warsaw Brigade 34, 35, 38

Warsaw Military District of the Bureau of Military Transport 150

Warsaw Pact 70

– BARIERA 79 112113

– Exhibitions of Armament Technical Progress 320

– folding railway bridges 227

– international military exercises of 115

– military doctrine 86

– operational plans of 23

– Polish railway network 23

– tactical thermonuclear weapons 411

Warsaw Regional State Railway Management 9093, 173174

– list of rail links 90

– Ministry of Transport militarised units of 139140

– rolling stock decommissioning points 147149

– storage facilities of surface and material supplies of 138139

Technical Regulations for Railway Operation 318319

wartime anti-tank defence 253254

wartime military transfers 246

Water Facility Reconstruction Train 178

Water Transport Command of the Regional Directorate of Waterways 59

Wehrmacht railway troops 41

Western Operational Direction 10, 23, 88, 107, 115, 117, 149, 410

white intelligence 21

wilderness strategy 14

Wisła – Odra operation 43

WLs40-120 locomotive 346

WLs40 type diesel locomotives 339, 340

WLs50 type diesel locomotives 339

Wojska kolejowe (Gembora) 11, 383

Wojska kolejowe 1944–1946, [The Railway Military 1944–1946] (Strózik) 11

wooden bridges 74, 79, 198, 200202, 216217, 317, 323, 325

Y

Yatsino, T.    35, 36

Z

Zagórz – Medzilaborce line 28

Zamczyński , Anatol 57

Zamkowska S.    27

Zarys historii Szefostwa Służby Komunikacji Wojskowej (unpublished) 11

Zazulak system interlocking boards 138

Żheleznodorozhniki v velikoy otchestvennoy voyne 11

Zheltikov, V.    38

Zhukovskyi, A.    37

Zieliński, Jerzy 321, 324

Zieminski, Wiktor 233

zones of frontline railway network 157

Z-type portable ramps 276

Zydel, Wacław 64

←443 | 444→