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Moritz Benjowsky – ein (mittel)europäischer Held

Materialien der internationalen wissenschaftlichen Konferenz, Wien, 22.–26. Mai 2019

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Edited By Alois Woldan and Katalin Blaskó

Die Beiträge dieses Bandes untersuchen das große Erbe, das der Abenteurer und Weltreisende Moritz Benjowsky (1741–1786) in Literatur, Theater und Film vieler europäischer Kulturen hinterlassen hat. Benjowsky ist Autor berühmter Memoiren und Held literarischer Werke in einem. Die Autoren dieses Bandes analysieren Werke über Benjowsky in deutscher, ungarischer, polnischer, slowakischer und russischer Sprache vom 18. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert, sie untersuchen die Verflechtungen innerhalb dieser Texte und die Bedingungen ihrer Entstehung. Sie zeigen, wie in diesen Texten ein Mythos von Benjowsky geschaffen wird, der auch als nationaler Erinnerungsort von Bedeutung ist. Ethnische Stereotypen in diesen Texten werden aufgezeigt, koloniale Mythen dekonstruiert.

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Auf den Spuren von Benjowsky im Wiener Vormärz (und darüber hinaus) und bei Franz Sartori

Gertraud Marinelli-König (Wien)

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Abstract: When in 1826 Madame Benjowsky died in her Hungarian castle (in present day Slovakia), a distinguished Viennese journal decided to commemorate her life as the spouse of a famous husband, the adventurer Count Moritz August Benjowsky. The successful drama about Benjowskyʼs escape from Kamtschatka by August Kotzebue, performed throughout Europe and in Vienna as well, is one of the numerous plays based on Russian plots, which were staged in Vienna during the period of „Vormärz“ (1815–1848).

Constant v. Wurzbachʼs biographical dictionary can be seen as an indicator of Benjowsky’s popularity in Vienna during the aforementioned Vormärz period. According to this work, Franz Sartori, head of the Viennese censorship department and prolific writer, popularized Benjowsky most successfully by including one of the German translations of his memoirs in his the 3-volume-collection of portraits of Austrian heroes Pantheon denkwürdiger Wunderthaten, volksthümlicher Heroen und furchtbarer Empörer des österreichischen Gesamt-Reiches (1816). This paper examines the way in which Sartori rearranged this translation for his Pantheon. As a juxtaposition, Sartori created another type of Austrian hero by including his portrayal of a humble farmer from Tyrol called Joseph Speckbacher, who bravely fought against the Napoleonic army. Sartori’s decision to include Benjowsky in his Pantheon is based on his conviction that Benjowsky as a Hungarian nobleman is qualified for a role as an Austrian hero, too. This decision was motivated by Sartoriʼs patriotic feelings for the Habsburg empire.

Keywords: Benjowsky’s memoirs, Viennese...

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