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Moritz Benjowsky – ein (mittel)europäischer Held

Materialien der internationalen wissenschaftlichen Konferenz, Wien, 22.–26. Mai 2019

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Edited By Alois Woldan and Katalin Blaskó

Die Beiträge dieses Bandes untersuchen das große Erbe, das der Abenteurer und Weltreisende Moritz Benjowsky (1741–1786) in Literatur, Theater und Film vieler europäischer Kulturen hinterlassen hat. Benjowsky ist Autor berühmter Memoiren und Held literarischer Werke in einem. Die Autoren dieses Bandes analysieren Werke über Benjowsky in deutscher, ungarischer, polnischer, slowakischer und russischer Sprache vom 18. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert, sie untersuchen die Verflechtungen innerhalb dieser Texte und die Bedingungen ihrer Entstehung. Sie zeigen, wie in diesen Texten ein Mythos von Benjowsky geschaffen wird, der auch als nationaler Erinnerungsort von Bedeutung ist. Ethnische Stereotypen in diesen Texten werden aufgezeigt, koloniale Mythen dekonstruiert.

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Vier polnische Narrationen über Beniowski aus der Perspektive der Mythen Gott und Natur

Lidia Wiśniewska (Bydgoszcz)

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Abstract: Hayden White noted that even purely historical narrations are a mixture of fact and fiction conceived as an expression of invention or construct. The author of this paper asks how the four Polish narratives about Beniowski, having historical ambitions, absolutize or marginalize the categories of time and space found in the both myths of One God (everlasting time, emptiness of space) and of Nature (the fullness and the oneness of space, chaos in time), or their domination in unsacred paradigms (straight-line time and hierarchical space in the linear time, as well as space as coincidentia oppositorum and cyclic time in the circular time). She recognizes that the quintessence of these models makes possible to define Beniowski: „a hero“ or „an adventurer“.

In Leon Orłowskiʼs mind, Beniowski is an adventurer of great style, inscribed in the myth of Nature by first referring to the circle attributes of Fortuna, the goddess of fertility (life), and then to a fate that brings both success and failure (the unity of opposites). Hence, the love for freedom, spontaneity, self-expression and self-fidelity (i.e. self-variability) that bring with a whole spectrum of possibilities from the role of a prisoner to that of king.

Janusz Roszko presents Beniowski as a figure on the borderline of two myths, with an emphasis on the myth of Nature. Althoug inscribed in the myth of God, Beniowski climbs the social ladder recreating himself more than once to become the king of Madagascar. At the same...

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