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A kaleidoscope of tourism research:

Insights from the International Competence Network of Tourism Research and Education (ICNT)


Edited By Michael Lück and Claire Liu

The International Competence Network of Tourism Research and Education (ICNT) covers a wide range of research expertise in the fields of tourism, hospitality and events management. ICNT’s sixth book showcases a kaleidoscope of tourism and hospitality topics, ranging from tourism education to sustainable tourism, wildlife tourism, Brexit and tourism, and to travel intermediation, tourist motivation and experiences. The book explains the way tourism and hospitality are understood in different countries around the world. Consequently, this book stimulates thought and discussion on tourist experiences and management, from the viewpoint of various stakeholders. It provides a wealth of new knowledge and will be a valuable resource for students, academics, researchers and industry members alike.

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Swimming with wild orcas in Norway: Killer whale behaviours addressed towards snorkelers and divers in an unregulated whale watching market


Chantal D. Pagel,Matthias Waltert,Michael ScheerandMichael Lück

Orcinus orca is an incredibly powerful and capable creature, exquisitely self-controlled and aware of the world around it, a being possessed of a zest for life and a healthy sense of humor, and moreover, a remarkable fondness for and interest in humans. (Paul Spong, Mind in the Waters, 1974)

The unique relationship between humans and killer whales is deeply rooted in spiritual connections and plays a dominant role in North West Pacific culture and folklore (Knudtson, 1996). The appreciation for orcas started long before the 1960s, when killer whales on public display shaped public perceptions in a positive way (Knudtson, 1996), and the early 1990s, when the motion picture Free Willy influenced a whole generation. Notably, their natural curiosity about humans and highly cooperative social structures have contributed tremendously to the popularity this species is experiencing today (Frohoff & Peterson, 2003). Therefore, it is less surprising that killer whales are one of the best-studied marine mammals worldwide (Le Duc, Robertson, & Pitman, 2008). Research on orcas to date has contributed to a profound knowledge of cetacean behaviour, ecology, social complexity and acoustics (e.g., Baird & Stacey, 1988; Bigg, Olesiuk, Ellis, Ford, & Balcomb, 1990; Ford, 1989; Williams, Trites, & Bain, 2002).

With their rising popularity, there has been correlated growth in the demand for seeing orcas in their natural habitat, which has contributed significantly to today’s reign of marine wildlife tourism and whale-watching in particular...

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