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Theodicy - From a Logical Point of View


Paul Weingartner

The aim of the book is to refute the claim that God’s omniscience, omnipotence and benevolence on the one hand and the existence of evil on the other are together inconsistent. This is shown first by unmasking many types of such claims as either logical fallacies or as presupposing false assumptions. Secondly the author formulates God’s attributes of omniscience, omnipotence and benevolence  and the existence of 10 types of evil in an axiomatic system. This contains the theorems about God’s knowledge, will, causation and benevolence without leading to any inconsistency. It proves the compatibility between God’s attributes of omniscience, omnipotence and benevolence with the fact of existence of evil. The author offers a consistency proof for the whole axiomatic system with the help of a model in which all axioms and theorems are satisfied.
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The purpose of this book is to show that the problem of theodicy can be investigated with the help of the axiomatic method. That means that the main task of theodicy—the defense of the compatibility between God’s attributes of omniscience omnipotence and benevolence with the fact of the existence of evil—can be formulated in a logical language with axioms, definitions, and theorems. In this more accurate form, it will be shown in the book that by a suitable axiomatic description of God’s attributes and by appropriate definitions of several types of evil the compatibility can be satisfied. In order to avoid misunderstanding, it should be underlined that this book is not a book on the existence of God. God’s existence with the above attributes is postulated by axioms A1 and A2. The book is an attempt to solve the main task of theodicy by applying the axiomatic method.

Acknowledgments: I want to thank Georg Dorn, Winfried Löffler and the members of the 2019 Bergseminar for valuable suggestions concerning improvements. Moreover, my thanks go to Hans-Peter Leeb and Rodrigo Leeb for typing and layout and to Kathryn Bishop for improving my English style.

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