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Societies and Spaces in Contact

Between Convergence and Divergence


Edited By Milan Bufon, Tove H. Malloy and Colin Williams

This volume represents an inter-disciplinary discussion of some fundamental categories of convergence and divergence, focusing in particular on issues of both social integration and devolution related to ethnos as the space of identity, and demos as the space of polity. The aims of the book are to assess past developments within crucial parts of Central Europe where both conflict and coexistence potentials seem to best represent the actual “unity in diversity” managing dilemma in the continent; to provide an analysis of current approaches to minority protection, language planning, spatial and social cross-border and inter-cultural policies; and to develop an evaluation of the future trends and opportunities for co-operation and re-integration within a local and broader operational context.

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Convergence Within Diversity: Integrating the European Diaspora in Australia (James Forrest)


James Forrest

Since the establishment of the first colony in 1778 until the later-1940s, immigration to Australia was dominated by settlers from Britain and Ireland, who remain today the largest source of European immigrants. After World War 2, however, Australia developed a national strategy aimed at industrialisation and population building. Partly this was defensive following the treat of invasion by Japan in 1942, but mainly it was to provide a labour force for large scale expansion of manufacturing industry, and to build up a domestic market for the consumption of locally produced goods (Ongley 1995). Immigrants from Britain and Ireland could not meet this demand, so Australia turned to Europe. As a ‘classic immigrant country’ (Castles et al. 2014), Australia, like the United States, Canada and New Zealand, has until recently emphasised permanent settlement, in contrast to guest worker or ‘labour migrant’ (Crul and Vermeulen 2003) policies adopted by many ‘new immigrant’ countries in Europe (Esser 2004).

Analysis of the reception of first-generation immigrants to Australia, and a slowly growing number of intergenerational studies, are mostly set within classic assimilation1 theory based on the immigrant experience of the United States and the melting pot model of that experience developed by the Chicago School of Sociology in the 1920s. This model provided a set of principles governing entry into labour and housing markets, contact with host society members, overcoming discrimination, and geographic dispersion over time as the children and grandchildren of immigrants moved out of enclave situations....

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