Papers from the Thirteenth International Conference on Methods in Dialectology, 2008
PART I. Historical Dialectology And Dialect Literature
Part I Historical Dialectology And Dialect Literature 1. Reallocation and codification in seventeenth- and eighteenth- century Paris R. Anthony Lodge University of Saint Andrews, UK 1. Introduction Histories of French usually structure their narrative around the development of the standard language, following the processes identified by E. Haugen in his classic 1968 study of standardisation: selection of the speech of Paris as the basis for the future standard in the thirteenth century, elaboration of the functional capacity of French in the later Middle Ages, codification of the norms of the standard language during the early-modern period, and acceptance of standard French by the relevant population during the nineteenth-twentieth centuries (see for example Lodge 1993). This top-down approach works well in France, thanks to the dominant position occupied since the thirteenth century by the country's capital city. However, a model which locates the engine of language change primarily in the standard language is hard to reconcile with the idea that linguistic change develops essentially in the everyday interactions of ordinary speakers, and involves the speech community as a whole, not merely as passive recipients of the standard, but as active participants in the development and diffusion of new linguistic norms. Pressure for linguistic uniformity undoubtedly comes from top-down standardisation, but it also comes from bottom-up levelling and koineization (Hornsby 2006). In this paper, I will argue that the codification movement in seventeenth-eighteenth-century Paris, while obviously forming part of the standardisation process, had its roots in an ongoing (and more basic) process...
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