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Q or not Q?

The So-Called Triple, Double, and Single Traditions in the Synoptic Gospels

Bartosz Adamczewski

The study analyses the current state of research on the synoptic problem and proves that the Synoptic Gospels were written in the Mark, Luke, Matthew order of direct literary dependence. Moreover, the work demonstrates that the Synoptic Gospels are results of systematic, sequential, hypertextual reworking of the contents of the Pauline letters. Accordingly, the so-called ‘Q source’ turns out to be an invention of nineteenth-century scholars with their Romantic hermeneutic presuppositions. Demonstration of the fact that the Gospels are not records of the activity of the historical Jesus but that they narratively illustrate the identity of Christ as it has been revealed in the person and life of Paul the Apostle will certainly have major consequences for the whole Christian theology.

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7 Summary of contents Contents................................................................................................................. 9 Introduction: The Q source and the so-called synoptic ‘traditions’.................... 17 Chapter 1: The synoptic problem and recently adopted solutions to it............... 19 1.1 Synoptic features of the first three canonical Gospels and problems with their adequate interpretation ............................................................... 19 1.2 Solutions to the synoptic problem adopted during the last twenty-five years ............................................................................................................ 21 1.2.1 Priority of Mk and the written source Q ............................................ 23 1.2.2 Priority of Mk and/or common oral traditions................................... 95 1.2.3 Priority of Mk and of some textually not recoverable traditions (D. C. Parker) ........................................................................................ 109 1.2.4 Priority of Proto-Mk and Q.............................................................. 111 1.2.5 Relative priority of Deutero-Mk (with or without Q) against Mt and Lk.................................................................................................... 116 1.2.6 Numerous precanonical sources of the Synoptic Gospels ............... 125 1.2.7 Common use of one lost protogospel............................................... 133 1.2.8 The Mt-Mk-Lk (‘Augustinian’) order of sequential literary dependence of the Synoptic Gospels .................................................... 141 1.2.9 The Mt-Lk-Mk (‘Two-Gospel’) order of sequential literary dependence of the Synoptic Gospels .................................................... 145 1.2.10 The Mk-Mt-Lk order of sequential literary dependence of the Synoptic Gospels................................................................................... 161 1.2.11 The Mk-Lk-Mt order of sequential literary dependence of the Synoptic Gospels................................................................................... 173 1.2.12 Conclusions .................................................................................... 184 1.3 Conclusions ............................................................................................. 185 Chapter 2: The basic pattern of literary interdependence of the Synoptic Gospels .......................................................................................................... 187 2.1 Criteria for ascertaining the existence and direction of possible direct literary dependence among the Synoptic Gospels .................................... 187 2.1.1 Questionable criteria of direct literary dependence ......................... 188 2.1.2 More reliable criteria of direct literary dependence......................... 196 2.1.3 Conclusions ...................................................................................... 205 2.2 Test cases of direct literary dependence among the Synoptic...

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