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Grammaticalisation Paths of «Have» in English

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Andrzej Lecki

This book explores the diachronic emergence of the verb have in English in its various grammatical uses. The development of grammatical functions of have is analysed from pragmatic-semantic, morphosyntactic and phonetic angles. Apart from the well-known and formerly studied cases of the rise of perfect and obligative have, the author describes the developments of the had better structure as well as causative have which have not received much scholarly attention thus far. He shows that the first examples of the fully grammaticalised constructions with have generally appear earlier than it is commonly believed. He also offers possible motivations behind the growth of obligative and causative have. This book proves that the changes leading to the rise of new grammatical constructions occur in a specific order: pragmatic-semantic changes precede morphosyntactic changes and phonetic reductions are the last to take place.

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Acknowledgments........................................................................................v List of Tables .............................................................................................. ix List of Figures ............................................................................................. ix Abbreviations and Symbols ........................................................................ xi Chapter One: Grammaticalization theory 1 Introduction ........................................................................................... 1 2 The history of grammaticalisation ........................................................ 3 2.1 From syntax to morphology – Givón .................................................... 4 2.2 Cologne project ..................................................................................... 5 2.2.1 Lehmann’s analysis .......................................................................... 6 2.2.2 Heine and Reh’s analysis ................................................................ 10 2.3 Hopper’s proposals ............................................................................. 11 2.4 Traugott’s pragmatic approach ........................................................... 18 3 Recent studies on grammaticalisation ................................................. 20 4 The term grammaticalisation .............................................................. 22 5 Motivation for and mechanisms of grammaticalisation ...................... 25 5.1 Morphosyntactic changes .................................................................... 28 5.2 Pragmatic-semantic changes ............................................................... 29 5.2.1 Semantic content – a gain or loss? .................................................. 29 5.2.2 Metaphorisation – metonymisation vs. analogy – reanalysis ........ 31 5.3 Phonetic changes ................................................................................. 34 5.4 Gradualness ......................................................................................... 36 6 Unidirectionality hypothesis and its criticism ..................................... 37 7 Clines and paths of grammatical change ............................................. 41 8 Criticism of grammaticalisation .......................................................... 44 Chapter Two: Semanticisation of HAVE 1 Chapter outline .................................................................................... 49 2 Earliest phonological development of HAVE ..................................... 49 3 Desemanticisation of HAVE ............................................................... 52 3.1 Is there bread? It hasn’t. Some cross-linguistic evidence .................. 64 3.2 The rise of the HAD BETTER structure ............................................. 69 4 Summary and conclusion .................................................................... 78 viii Chapter Three: Along the possession-to-obligation cline 1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 79 2 Synchronic characteristics of HAVE TO .......................................... 81 3 Traditional accounts of the development of HAVE TO .................... 86 4 The rise of HAVE TO viewed as a syntactically driven change ........ 91 5 Grammaticalisation of HAVE TO revised ........................................ 99 5.1 The auxiliary status of HAVE TO in Old English ........................... 101 5.2 Latin influence ............................................................................... 114 5.3 Word order of HAVE + to-infinitive .............................................. 118 5.4 Pragmatic-semantic development of HAVE TO ............................. 128 5.5 Negation...

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