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Stereotypes in Literatures and Cultures

International Reception Studies

Edited By Rahilya Geybullayeva and Peter Orte

Imaginative representations of different cultures are one of the major stumbling blocks to understanding, deepening the gap between people as they are passed from one text to another, especially in periods of historical transition. These transfers are sometimes innocent, while at other times they serve political agendas. The sample of images and estimations of others becomes a priority and, frequently for this reason, stereotypical. This is the subject of investigation for the majority of the authors in this collection. This book with articles presented here is an attempt to understand the core of confirmed or standardized social norms.
The book contains articles in English and in Russian language.

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Chapter 4. Stereotypes, Myths and Cultural Transfers:France, Eastern Europe, South Slavs, cross visions

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131 Austro-Hungarian Empire. But some deal with much far-off lands: North Amer- ica, Brazil, South Africa, Central Asia, or even Japan and China. This modest but sizeable production of travel accounts does not owe its ex- istence only to the new Ottoman policy of openness to the world at large. It is also the result of technological progress. From the 1830’s onwards, thanks to steam- ships and railways, the world becomes smaller. One needs only five or six days to travel from Istanbul to Marseilles or vice versa. At the end of the 19th century, no more than three days are necessary to cover the distance between Paris and the Capital city of the Ottoman Empire. In previous times, the organization of a travel was a huge enterprise, which necessitated important investments in time and fi- nancial means. Most European travellers who toured Eastern lands, had to accept the idea of being on the roads for more than a year. Similarly, during the first half of the 19th century, Ottoman officials who visit Europe had to foresee a difficult journey not shorter than half a year. A few decades later, the conditions are en- tirely different. In 1889, the Ottoman writer Ahmed Midhat needs only two months to travel to Stockholm - where he takes part in an international congress of Orientalists - and to visit Paris on his way back. Most of the Ottoman travellers of the same period manage to tour the main high spots of Europe in...

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