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Pogroms and Riots

German Press Responses to Anti-Jewish Violence in Germany and Russia (1881-1882)

Sonja Weinberg

The establishment of universal manhood suffrage and legal equality for Jews in Germany in the 1860s and 1870s gave way to the rise of political anti-Semitism to a degree not witnessed before. In Russia too, as a consequence of the reform era (1855-1881), the «Jewish Question» became one of the most hotly debated topics. In 1881 and 1882 the anti-Semitic climate in Germany and Russia culminated in anti-Jewish pogroms sweeping over parts of Prussia and Southern Russia. This study explores the heated debate which unfolded in 1881 and 1882 in the German press in response to these events. The simultaneity of the pogroms in Russia and Germany offers a unique opportunity to examine the response of German commentators to both domestic and foreign anti-Jewish violence.

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227 Bibliography Primary sources Newspapers Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums Germania Neue Preussische (Kreuz-) Zeitung Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung Books and articles Andree, Richard. Zur Volkskunde der Juden. Leipzig und Bielefeld, 1881. Autoemancipation! Mahnruf an seine Stammesgenossen von einem Russischen Juden. Berlin, W. Issleib, 1882. Beheim-Schwarzbach, Max, “Die Besiedlung von Ostdeutschland durch die zweite germanische Völkerwanderung,” in Sammlung gemeinverständlicher wissenschaftlicher Vorträge. Berlin, 1882. Brafman, Iakov. Kniga kagala, 1st ed. Vilna, 1869. Dohm, Christian, Wilhelm. Über die bürgerliche Verbesserung der Juden. Ber- lin, 1781. Frey, Thomas. Antisemiten-Katechismus, 2nd ed. Leipzig, 1887. Löher, Franz von Russlands Werden und Wollen, 3 Volumes. München, 1881. Müller, E. ed., Berliner St. Bonifacius-Kalender für 1881. Rülf, J. Drei Tage in Jüdisch-Russland. Ein Cultur-und Sittenbild. Frankfurt am Main, J. Kauffmann, 1882. Secondary sources Adler-Rudel, S. Ostjuden in Deutschland 1880-1940. Tübingen, 1959. Aronson, Michael, “The anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia in 1881,” in John D. Klier and Shlomo Lambroza, eds., Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Mod- ern Russian History. Cambridge, 1992: 44-61. 228 –, Troubled Waters. Pittsburgh, 1990. Aschheim, Steven E. Brothers and Strangers. Madison, Wisconsin, 1982. Benz, W. und Bergmann, W., “Antisemitismus - Vorgeschichte des Völker- mords?” in W. Benz und W. Bergmann, eds., Vorurteil und Völkermord. Freiburg im Breisgau, 1997: 10-31. Bergmann, Werner, “Pogroms,” in Heitmeyer, Wilhelm and Hagan, John, eds., International Handbook of Violence Research. London, 2003: 351-367. –, “Approaches to Antisemitism Based on Psychodynamics and Personality The- ory,” in Werner Bergmann, ed., Error Without Trial. Berlin, 1988:...

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